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      Preclinical pharmacokinetics, interspecies scaling, and pharmacokinetics of a Phase I clinical trial of TTAC-0001, a fully human monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor 2

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          Abstract

          Background

          VEGF is a highly selective mitogen that serves as the central regulator of tumor angiogenesis by mediating endothelial proliferation, permeability, and survival. Tanibirumab (TTAC-0001) is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody derived from a fully human naïve single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) phage library that was developed to inhibit the effects of VEGF in the treatment of solid tumors, especially those of the brain.

          Methods

          In the present study, we conducted intravenous pharmacokinetic studies of TTAC-0001 in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys. At the doses studied (3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg), TTAC-0001 exhibited dose proportionality in mice and monkeys. At a dose of ~10 mg/kg, the clearance of TTAC-0001 from serum was 0.017 mL/h in mice, 0.35 mL/h in rats, and 2.19 mL/h in cynomolgus monkeys, and the terminal half-life ranged from 20–30 h among the three species. Pharmacokinetic data in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys were used to predict the pharmacokinetics of TTAC-0001 in humans using allometric scaling. The predicted serum clearance of TTAC-0001 in humans was 102.45 mL/h and the terminal half-life was 27.52 h.

          Results

          The maximum life span-corrected clearance value was 72.92 mL/h. The observed clearance in humans was more similar to the predicted scaled clearance.

          Conclusion

          We investigated the pharmacokinetics of TTAC-0001 in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys after intravenous administration. At the doses studied, TTAC-0001 exhibited dose proportionality in mice and monkeys. The scaled pharmacokinetics of TTAC-0001 reported here was useful for designing first-in-human studies. Allometric scaling in the therapeutic antibody is feasible.

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          Most cited references 19

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          The growth of blood vessels (a process known as angiogenesis) is essential for organ growth and repair. An imbalance in this process contributes to numerous malignant, inflammatory, ischaemic, infectious and immune disorders. Recently, the first anti-angiogenic agents have been approved for the treatment of cancer and blindness. Angiogenesis research will probably change the face of medicine in the next decades, with more than 500 million people worldwide predicted to benefit from pro- or anti-angiogenesis treatments.
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            Recent discoveries of endogenous negative regulators of angiogenesis, thrombospondin, angiostatin and glioma-derived angiogenesis inhibitory factor, all associated with neovascularized tumours, suggest a new paradigm of tumorigenesis. It is now helpful to think of the switch to the angiogenic phenotype as a net balance of positive and negative regulators of blood vessel growth. The extent to which the negative regulators are decreased during this switch may dictate whether a primary tumour grows rapidly or slowly and whether metastases grow at all.
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              Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are important regulators of intracellular signal-transduction pathways mediating development and multicellular communication in metazoans. Their activity is normally tightly controlled and regulated. Perturbation of PTK signalling by mutations and other genetic alterations results in deregulated kinase activity and malignant transformation. The lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and some of its downstream targets, such as the protein-serine/threonine kinases Akt and p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), are crucial effectors in oncogenic PTK signalling. This review emphasizes how oncogenic conversion of protein kinases results from perturbation of the normal autoinhibitory constraints on kinase activity and provides an update on our knowledge about the role of deregulated PI(3)K/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K signalling in human malignancies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                08 March 2018
                : 12
                : 495-504
                Affiliations
                [1 ]PharmAbcine, Inc., Daejeon, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sung Kweon Cho, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, B2F Samsung Comprehensive Cancer Center, 81, Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea, Tel +822 2148 7797, Fax +822 2148 7550, Email wontan@ 123456skku.edu
                Article
                dddt-12-495
                10.2147/DDDT.S150241
                5848842
                © 2018 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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