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      Sugarcane multitrophic interactions: Integrating belowground and aboveground organisms


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          Sugarcane is a crop of major importance used mainly for sugar and biofuel production, and many additional applications of its byproducts are being developed. Sugarcane cultivation is plagued by many insect pests and pathogens that reduce sugarcane yields overall. Recently emerging studies have shown complex multitrophic interactions in cultivated areas, such as the induction of sugarcane defense-related proteins by insect herbivory that function against fungal pathogens that commonly appear after mechanical damage. Fungi and viruses infecting sugarcane also modulate insect behavior, for example, by causing changes in volatile compounds responsible for insect attraction or repelling natural vector enemies via a mechanism that increases pathogen dissemination from infected plants to healthy ones. Interestingly, the fungus Fusarium verticillioides is capable of being vertically transmitted to insect offspring, ensuring its persistence in the field. Understanding multitrophic complexes is important to develop better strategies for controlling pathosystems affecting sugarcane and other important crops and highlights the importance of not only studying binary interactions but also adding as many variables as possible to effectively translate laboratory research to real-life conditions.

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          The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology.

          The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international community, and resulted in the generation of a Top 10 fungal plant pathogen list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Magnaporthe oryzae; (2) Botrytis cinerea; (3) Puccinia spp.; (4) Fusarium graminearum; (5) Fusarium oxysporum; (6) Blumeria graminis; (7) Mycosphaerella graminicola; (8) Colletotrichum spp.; (9) Ustilago maydis; (10) Melampsora lini, with honourable mentions for fungi just missing out on the Top 10, including Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Rhizoctonia solani. This article presents a short resumé of each fungus in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant mycology community, as well as laying down a bench-mark. It will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and what fungi will comprise any future Top 10. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.
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            Fungal effectors and plant susceptibility.

            Plants can be colonized by fungi that have adopted highly diverse lifestyles, ranging from symbiotic to necrotrophic. Colonization is governed in all systems by hundreds of secreted fungal effector molecules. These effectors suppress plant defense responses and modulate plant physiology to accommodate fungal invaders and provide them with nutrients. Fungal effectors either function in the interaction zone between the fungal hyphae and host or are transferred to plant cells. This review describes the effector repertoires of 84 plant-colonizing fungi. We focus on the mechanisms that allow these fungal effectors to promote virulence or compatibility, discuss common plant nodes that are targeted by effectors, and provide recent insights into effector evolution. In addition, we address the issue of effector uptake in plant cells and highlight open questions and future challenges.
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              Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

              Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here.

                Author and article information

                Genet Mol Biol
                Genet Mol Biol
                Genetics and Molecular Biology
                Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
                09 December 2022
                : 46
                : 1 Suppl 1
                : e20220163
                [1 ]Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Departamento de Genética, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
                Author notes
                Send correspondence to Marcio C. Silva-Filho. Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Departamento de Genética, Av. Pádua Dias, 11, 13400-918, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. E-mail: mdcsilva@ 123456usp.br

                Associate Editor: Marcia Pinheiro Margis

                Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

                Author Contributions: DZG, ABP, MOH and MCSF were responsible for conceptualization. DZG, ABP and MOH wrote and prepared the original draft. MCSF commented on and edited the final draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. DZG, ABP and MOH contributed equally to this work.

                Author information

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (type CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, istribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original article is properly cited.

                : 11 May 2022
                : 03 October 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 251
                Plant Molecular Genetics - Special Issue

                Molecular biology
                plant defense mechanisms,insect behavioral manipulation,plant-insect-fungus-virus-bacterium interactions,direct and indirect defense,functional diversity


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