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      Prediction of Early Pulmonary Artery Stenosis after Arterial Switch Operation: The Role of Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography


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          Objectives: To investigate prospectively the prediction of the neopulmonary stenosis (neo-PS) after arterial switch operation (ASO) for transposition of the great artery (TGA) with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods: Infants with TGA undergoing the ASO were prospectively studied over 5 years. The neo-PS was defined when the peak flow velocity was over 3 m/s at the neo main pulmonary artery (neo-MPA) after ASO by TEE (TEEPS). Catheterization was performed if estimated peak neo-PS pressure gradient was over 40 mm Hg by transthoracic echocardiography. Balloon angioplasty was tried first and surgical reoperation was reserved for those with failed angioplasty. Results: In total 49 consecutive patients were enrolled into the cohort study. TEEPS was identified in 21 patients. For patients with TEEPS, freedom from reintervention was 28% at 1 year and 23% at 2 years. For patients without TEEPS, freedom from reintervention for PS was 92% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. The time interval from ASO to reintervention was significantly shorter in patients with TEEPS than without TEEPS. Existence of TEEPS and non-Lecompte method were main risk factor for reintervention. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the application of intraoperative TEE for infants undergoing ASO is very helpful in predicting the development of early postoperative neo-PS.

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          Results of the arterial switch operation in neonates with transposed great arteries.

          The arterial switch operation is judged the best palliative operation for neonates with transposed great arteries. We aimed to assess the value of analysing a large series of unselected cases by this technically demanding operation and formulate a realistic prognosis. We reviewed all 432 neonates (mean age at operation 7 days, mean weight 3.25 kg) who underwent an arterial switch operation between 1987 and 1999. Follow-up (mean time: 4.9 years) was complete in 412 patients. Survival probability and freedom from reoperation was 94% and 78% at 10 years, respectively. 26 patients died, 16 because of myocardial ischaemia. Risk factors for death included early experience, low weight, associated cardiovascular malformations (especially hypoplasia of the right ventricle or aortic arch), and difficult patterns of coronary arteries. The risk of the coronary artery pattern was greatly reduced in those who had recent operations. At last follow-up, 90% of patients had normal life without treatment, and 94% a normal heart function on echocardiography. The arterial switch operation in neonates achieves excellent results mid-term. Obstruction of the translocated coronary arteries is responsible for most deaths and a substantial number of reoperations. Although confirmation is needed, these results allow anticipation of a favourable long-term prognosis.
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            Factors influencing early and late outcome of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries.

            Between January 1983 and January 1992, 470 patients underwent an arterial switch operation at our institution. An intact (or virtually intact) ventricular septum was present in 278 of 470 (59%); a ventricular septal defect was closed in the remaining 192. Survivals at 1 month and 1, 5, and 8 years among the 470 patients were 93%, 92%, 91%, and 91%, respectively. The hazard function for death (at any time) had a rapidly declining single phase that approached zero by one year after the operation. Risk factors for death included coronary artery patterns with a retropulmonary course of the left coronary artery (two types) and a pattern in which the right coronary artery and left anterior descending arose from the anterior sinus with a posterior course of the circumflex coronary. The only procedural risk factor identified was augmentation of the aortic arch; longer duration of circulatory arrest was also a risk factor for death. Earlier date of operation was a risk factor for death, but only in the case of the senior surgeon. Reinterventions were performed to relieve right ventricular and/or pulmonary artery stenoses alone in 28 patients. The hazard function for reintervention for pulmonary artery or valve stenosis revealed an early phase that peaked at 9 months after the operation and a constant phase for the duration of follow-up. Incremental risk factors for the early phase included multiple ventricular septal defects, the rapid two-stage arterial switch, and a coronary pattern with a single ostium supplying the right coronary and left anterior descending, with a retropulmonary course of the circumflex. The need for reintervention has decreased with time. The arterial switch operation can currently be performed early in life with a low mortality risk (< 5%) and a low incidence of reintervention (< 10%) for supravalvular pulmonary stenosis. The analyses indicate that both the mortality and reintervention risks are lower in patients with less complex anatomy.
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              Long-term survival and functional follow-up in patients after the arterial switch operation.

              For many years, the arterial switch operation (ASO) has been the therapy of choice for patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Although excellent short- and mid-term results were reported, long-term results are rare. Between May 1983 and September 1997, ASO was performed on 285 patients with simple TGA (n = 171), TGA with ventricular septal defect (VSD) (n = 85), and Taussig-Bing (TB) anomaly (n = 29). This retrospective study describes long-term morbidity and mortality over a 15-year period. Hospital mortality was 3.5% for simple TGA, 9.4% for TGA with VSD, and 13.8% for TB anomaly. Late death occured in 2 patients, 1 with simple TGA and 1 with TGA and VSD. The cumulative survival for all patients at 5 and 10 years is 93%, and at 15 years is 86%. Reoperations were required in 31 patients and were most common for stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). However, no correlation was found between technical variations on pulmonary artery reconstruction and this type of complication. Forty-six patients underwent follow-up angiography, which revealed five cases with coronary occlusion or stenosis. Follow-up is complete in 96% of the patients from 1 to 15.2 years. Sinus rhythm is present in 97%; 88% of the patients show no limitations on exertion. The ASO can be performed with low early mortality, almost absent late mortality, and infrequent need for reoperation. The favorable long-term results demonstrate that the ASO can be considered as the optimal approach for patients with TGA and special forms of double-outlet right ventricle.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2008
                17 September 2007
                : 109
                : 4
                : 230-236
                Departments of aSurgery, bPediatrics, and cAnesthesiology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
                107785 Cardiology 2008;109:230–236
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                : 18 August 2006
                : 22 February 2007
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Original Research

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Pulmonary stenosis,Restenosis,Arterial switch operation,Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography,Transposition of great arteries,Congenital heart disease


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