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      Endothelin 1 Is Associated with Heart Failure Hospitalization and Long-Term Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and Pulmonary Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Background: The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasing. We aim to study the role of big endothelin 1 (Big ET1), endothelin 1 (ET1), and neprilysin (NE) in HFpEF with PH. Method: This was a single center prospective cohort study including 90 HFpEF patients; 30 with no PH, 30 with postcapillary PH, and 30 with combined post- and precapillary PH. After enrollment, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial samples of Big ET1, ET1, and NE were collected during right heart catheterization. Subjects were then followed long term for adverse outcomes which included echocardiographic evidence of right ventricular dysfunction, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. Results: Patients with HFpEF-PH were found to have increased ET1 in pulmonary veins (endothelin from the wedge; ET1W) compared to controls (2.3 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.9 pg/mL, respectively). ET1W levels were associated with both PH (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–4.7, p = 0.01) and pulmonary vascular resistance (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.04–2.3, p = 0.03). No evidence of right ventricular dysfunction was observed after 1 year of follow-up. ET1W (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.6, p = 0.01) and ET1 gradient (ET1G; OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.04–2, p = 0.03) were predictive of 1-year hospitalization. ET1G ≥0.2 pg/mL was associated with long-term mortality (log-rank 4.8, p = 0.03). Conclusion: In HFpEF patients, ET1W and ET1G are predictive of 1-year heart failure hospitalization, while elevated ET1G levels were found to be associated with long-term mortality in HFpEF. This study highlights the role of ET1 in developing PH in HFpEF patients and also explores the potential of ET1 as a prognostic biomarker.

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          Most cited references32

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          Pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a community-based study.

          This study sought to define the prevalence, severity, and significance of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in the general community. Although HFpEF is known to cause PH, its development is highly variable. Community-based data are lacking, and the relative contribution of pulmonary venous versus pulmonary arterial hypertension (HTN) to PH in HFpEF is unknown. We hypothesized that PH would be a marker of symptomatic pulmonary congestion, distinguishing HFpEF from pre-clinical hypertensive heart disease. This community-based study of 244 HFpEF patients (age 76 +/- 13 years; 45% male) was followed up using Doppler echocardiography over 3 years. Control subjects were 719 adults with HTN without HF (age 66 +/- 10 years; 44% male). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was derived from the tricuspid regurgitation velocity and PH defined as PASP >35 mm Hg. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was estimated from the ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early mitral annular diastolic velocity. In HFpEF, PH was present in 83% and the median (25th, 75th percentile) PASP was 48 (37, 56) mm Hg. PASP increased with PCWP (r = 0.21; p < 0.007). Adjusting for PCWP, PASP was higher in HFpEF than HTN (p < 0.001). The PASP distinguished HFpEF from HTN with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.91 (p < 0.001) and strongly predicted mortality in HFpEF (hazard ratio: 1.3 per 10 mm Hg; p < 0.001). PH is highly prevalent and often severe in HFpEF. Although pulmonary venous HTN contributes to PH, it does not fully account for the severity of PH in HFpEF, suggesting that a component of pulmonary arterial HTN also contributes. The potent effect of PASP on mortality lends support for therapies aimed at pulmonary arterial HTN in HFpEF.
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            Effects of vasodilation in heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction implications of distinct pathophysiologies on response to therapy.

            The purpose of this study was to compare hemodynamic responses to vasodilator therapy in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) versus HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). There is no proven therapy for HFpEF. In the absence of data, medicines with established benefit in HFrEF such as vasodilators are frequently prescribed for HFpEF. We compared baseline hemodynamics and acute responses to vasodilation with intravenous sodium nitroprusside in patients with HFrEF (n = 174) and HFpEF (n = 83), determined invasively by cardiac catheterization. Baseline blood pressure, stroke volume, and cardiac output were greater in HFpEF than HFrEF, while pulmonary artery mean and pulmonary wedge pressures were similar. Left ventricular filling pressures were reduced to a similar extent in each group with nitroprusside, but the drop in systemic arterial pressure was 2.6-fold greater in HFpEF (p < 0.0001), and improvements in stroke volume and cardiac output were each ∼60% lower in HFpEF compared to HFrEF (p < 0.0001). Despite similarly elevated filling pressures, HFpEF patients were fourfold more likely than HFrEF to experience a reduction in stroke volume with nitroprusside (p < 0.0001), suggesting greater vulnerability to preload reduction. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure dropped more in HFpEF than in HFrEF despite similar reduction in pulmonary mean pressure and resistance, suggesting higher right ventricular systolic elastance in HFpEF. As compared to patients with HFrEF, patients with HFpEF experience greater blood pressure reduction, less enhancement in cardiac output, and greater likelihood of stroke volume drop with vasodilators. These findings emphasize fundamental differences in the 2 HF phenotypes and suggest that more pathophysiologically targeted therapies are needed for HFpEF. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Soluble neprilysin is predictive of cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalization in heart failure patients.

              Neprilysin is a membrane-bound enzyme that breaks down natriuretic peptides. The PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial showed that patients with heart failure (HF) treated with an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor lived longer without being hospitalized for HF than those receiving standard care with enalapril.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2019
                October 2019
                12 September 2019
                : 143
                : 3-4
                : 124-133
                Affiliations
                [_a] aDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio, USA
                [_b] bDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA
                Author notes
                *Samer J. Khouri, MD, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614 (USA), E-Mail Samer.Khouri@utoledo.edu
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1173-5638
                Article
                501100 Cardiology 2019;143:124–133
                10.1159/000501100
                31514181
                9e62622c-6492-4d77-9dc7-d3efd8931f7a
                © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 12 February 2019
                : 21 May 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Pulmonary Circulation and RV: Research Article

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Heart failure,Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction,Endothelin 1,Pulmonary hypertension

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