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      Imaging Protein Trafficking

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          Abstract

          The need to understand complex intracellular trafficking mechanisms from both a basic and disease-oriented perspective has stimulated considerable interest in the development of real-time microscopy tools. Recent advances in instrumentation and the development of molecular bioprobes, such as green fluorescent protein and its derivatives, have opened up a new era in our ability to perform close to real-time imaging of cellular events with high spatial and temporal resolution, and with high sensitivity. This review briefly introduces and discusses some of the systems and methodologies that are available from several manufacturers, including laser scanning and spinning disk confocal microscopy, and total internal reflectance microscopy.

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          Most cited references 26

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          The green fluorescent protein.

          In just three years, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has vaulted from obscurity to become one of the most widely studied and exploited proteins in biochemistry and cell biology. Its amazing ability to generate a highly visible, efficiently emitting internal fluorophore is both intrinsically fascinating and tremendously valuable. High-resolution crystal structures of GFP offer unprecedented opportunities to understand and manipulate the relation between protein structure and spectroscopic function. GFP has become well established as a marker of gene expression and protein targeting in intact cells and organisms. Mutagenesis and engineering of GFP into chimeric proteins are opening new vistas in physiological indicators, biosensors, and photochemical memories.
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            Endocytosis by random initiation and stabilization of clathrin-coated pits.

            Clathrin-coated vesicles carry traffic from the plasma membrane to endosomes. We report here the real-time visualization of cargo sorting and endocytosis by clathrin-coated pits in living cells. We have detected the formation of coats by monitoring incorporation of fluorescently tagged clathrin or its adaptor AP-2; we have also followed clathrin-mediated uptake of transferrin and of single LDL or reovirus particles. The intensity of a cargo-loaded clathrin cluster grows steadily during its lifetime, and the time required to complete assembly is proportional to the size of the cargo particle. These results are consistent with a nucleation-growth mechanism and an approximately constant growth rate. There are no strongly preferred nucleation sites. A proportion of the nucleation events are weak and short lived. Cargo incorporation occurs primarily or exclusively in a newly formed coated pit. Our data lead to a model in which coated pits initiate randomly but collapse unless stabilized, perhaps by cargo capture.
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              Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology.

              Key events in cellular trafficking occur at the cell surface, and it is desirable to visualize these events without interference from other regions deeper within. This review describes a microscopy technique based on total internal reflection fluorescence which is well suited for optical sectioning at cell-substrate regions with an unusually thin region of fluorescence excitation. The technique has many other applications as well, most notably for studying biochemical kinetics and single biomolecule dynamics at surfaces. A brief summary of these applications is provided, followed by presentations of the physical basis for the technique and the various ways to implement total internal reflection fluorescence in a standard fluorescence microscope.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8074-8
                978-3-318-01315-3
                1660-2129
                2006
                March 2006
                13 March 2006
                : 103
                : 2
                : e55-e61
                Affiliations
                Program in Membrane Biology and Division of Nephrology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA
                Article
                90617 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;103:e55–e61
                10.1159/000090617
                16543765
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 32, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/90617
                Categories
                Microscopic Imaging

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