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      Transcription factors: from enhancer binding to developmental control.

        1 ,
      Nature reviews. Genetics
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Developmental progression is driven by specific spatiotemporal domains of gene expression, which give rise to stereotypically patterned embryos even in the presence of environmental and genetic variation. Views of how transcription factors regulate gene expression are changing owing to recent genome-wide studies of transcription factor binding and RNA expression. Such studies reveal patterns that, at first glance, seem to contrast with the robustness of the developmental processes they encode. Here, we review our current knowledge of transcription factor function from genomic and genetic studies and discuss how different strategies, including extensive cooperative regulation (both direct and indirect), progressive priming of regulatory elements, and the integration of activities from multiple enhancers, confer specificity and robustness to transcriptional regulation during development.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Nat Rev Genet
          Nature reviews. Genetics
          Springer Science and Business Media LLC
          1471-0064
          1471-0056
          Sep 2012
          : 13
          : 9
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Developmental Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany. spitz@embl.de
          Article
          nrg3207
          10.1038/nrg3207
          22868264
          9e6c47b0-d9d6-4114-bef6-dbc62a1d7e52
          History

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