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      Effects of oleoylethanolamide supplementation on atherogenic indices and hematological parameters in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A clinical trial

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          Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent cause of chronic liver disease in the world. The current interventional trial aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in combination with weight loss intervention on some atherogenic indices as well as hematological parameters in patients newly diagnosed with NAFLD.

          Methods: In this triple-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 76 obese patients with NAFLD confirmed by ultra-sonographic findings were randomly assigned to receive a weight reduction diet plus either 250 mg OEA (n=38) or placebo (n=38) for 12 weeks. Atherogenic factors including total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios and non-HDL-C level, as well as hematological parameters were assessed before and after intervention.

          Results : After adjustment for potential confounding factors, between group analyses demonstrated a significantly lower LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios in the OEA group compared to the placebo, post-intervention (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.06 to 0.85, P = 0.024; 95% CI: -2.06 to -0.05, P = 0.039; 95% CI: -1.05 to -0.02, P = 0.042,respectively). Additionally, OEA supplementation could significantly decrease the levels of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) compared to the placebo at the endpoint after considering potential confounding variables (95% CI: -0.56 to -0.003, P = 0.041). No significant differences were found between the two study groups in terms of other hematological parameters.

          Conclusion: The results of the current study indicated that OEA supplementation had beneficial effects on LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios as well as RDW in obese patients with NAFLD.

          Trial Registration: IRCT20110530006652N2; https://www.irct.ir/trial/37228.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Global epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-Meta-analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes.

          Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. We estimated the global prevalence, incidence, progression, and outcomes of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PubMed/MEDLINE were searched from 1989 to 2015 for terms involving epidemiology and progression of NAFLD. Exclusions included selected groups (studies that exclusively enrolled morbidly obese or diabetics or pediatric) and no data on alcohol consumption or other liver diseases. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis, overall mortality, and liver-related mortality were determined. NASH required histological diagnosis. All studies were reviewed by three independent investigators. Analysis was stratified by region, diagnostic technique, biopsy indication, and study population. We used random-effects models to provide point estimates (95% confidence interval [CI]) of prevalence, incidence, mortality and incidence rate ratios, and metaregression with subgroup analysis to account for heterogeneity. Of 729 studies, 86 were included with a sample size of 8,515,431 from 22 countries. Global prevalence of NAFLD is 25.24% (95% CI: 22.10-28.65) with highest prevalence in the Middle East and South America and lowest in Africa. Metabolic comorbidities associated with NAFLD included obesity (51.34%; 95% CI: 41.38-61.20), type 2 diabetes (22.51%; 95% CI: 17.92-27.89), hyperlipidemia (69.16%; 95% CI: 49.91-83.46%), hypertension (39.34%; 95% CI: 33.15-45.88), and metabolic syndrome (42.54%; 95% CI: 30.06-56.05). Fibrosis progression proportion, and mean annual rate of progression in NASH were 40.76% (95% CI: 34.69-47.13) and 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06-0.12). HCC incidence among NAFLD patients was 0.44 per 1,000 person-years (range, 0.29-0.66). Liver-specific mortality and overall mortality among NAFLD and NASH were 0.77 per 1,000 (range, 0.33-1.77) and 11.77 per 1,000 person-years (range, 7.10-19.53) and 15.44 per 1,000 (range, 11.72-20.34) and 25.56 per 1,000 person-years (range, 6.29-103.80). Incidence risk ratios for liver-specific and overall mortality for NAFLD were 1.94 (range, 1.28-2.92) and 1.05 (range, 0.70-1.56).
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            Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention

            Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration has been the prime index of cardiovascular disease risk and the main target for therapy. However, several lipoprotein ratios or “atherogenic indices” have been defined in an attempt to optimize the predictive capacity of the lipid profile. In this review, we summarize their pathophysiological aspects, and highlight the rationale for using these lipoprotein ratios as cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice, specifying their cut-off risk levels and a target for lipid-lowering therapy. Total/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios are risk indicators with greater predictive value than isolated parameters used independently, particularly LDL. Future recommendations regarding the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia, including instruments for calculating cardiovascular risk or action guidelines, should include the lipoprotein ratios with greater predictive power which, in view of the evidence-based results, are none other than those which include HDL cholesterol.
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              PPARs in obesity-induced T2DM, dyslipidaemia and NAFLD

              Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that predisposes individuals to cardiometabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which are all related to inappropriate ectopic lipid deposition. Identification of the pathogenic molecular mechanisms and effective therapeutic approaches are highly needed. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) modulate several biological processes that are perturbed in obesity, including inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism and overall energy homeostasis. Here, we review how PPARs regulate the functions of adipose tissues, such as adipogenesis, lipid storage and adaptive thermogenesis, under healthy and pathological conditions. We also discuss the clinical use and mechanism of PPAR agonists in the treatment of obesity comorbidities such as dyslipidaemia, T2DM and NAFLD. First generation PPAR agonists, primarily those acting on PPARγ, are associated with adverse effects that outweigh their clinical benefits, which led to the discontinuation of their development. An improved understanding of the physiological roles of PPARs might, therefore, enable the development of safe, new PPAR agonists with improved therapeutic potential.

                Author and article information

                Health Promot Perspect
                Health Promot Perspect
                Health Promot Perspect
                Health Promotion Perspectives
                Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
                07 November 2020
                : 10
                : 4
                : 373-382
                1Nutrition Research Center, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                2Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding Author: Alireza Monshikarimi, Email: monshikarimi48@ 123456gmail.com Alireza Ostadrahimi, Email: ostadrahimi@ 123456tbzmed.ac.ir
                © 2020 The Author(s).

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 53
                Original Article


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