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      Canagliflozin Compared With Sitagliptin for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Who Do Not Have Adequate Glycemic Control With Metformin Plus Sulfonylurea : A 52-week randomized trial

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          To evaluate the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, compared with sitagliptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin plus sulfonylurea.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 study, subjects using stable metformin plus sulfonylurea ( N = 755) received canagliflozin 300 mg or sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Primary end point was change from baseline in A1C at 52 weeks. Secondary end points included change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and systolic blood pressure (BP), and percent change in body weight, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. Safety was assessed based on adverse event (AE) reports.

          RESULTS

          At 52 weeks, canagliflozin 300 mg demonstrated noninferiority and, in a subsequent assessment, showed superiority to sitagliptin 100 mg in reducing A1C (−1.03% [−11.3 mmol/mol] and −0.66% [−7.2 mmol/mol], respectively; least squares mean difference between groups, −0.37% [95% CI, −0.50 to −0.25] or −4.0 mmol/mol [−5.5 to −2.7]). Greater reductions in FPG, body weight, and systolic BP were observed with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin ( P < 0.001). Overall AE rates were similar with canagliflozin (76.7%) and sitagliptin (77.5%); incidence of serious AEs and AE-related discontinuations was low for both groups. Higher incidences of genital mycotic infections and osmotic diuresis–related AEs were observed with canagliflozin, which led to one discontinuation. Hypoglycemia rates were similar in both groups.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Findings suggest that canagliflozin may be a new therapeutic tool providing better improvement in glycemic control and body weight reduction than sitagliptin, but with increased genital infections in subjects with type 2 diabetes using metformin plus sulfonylurea.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial

          Aims/hypothesis The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of liraglutide in type 2 diabetes mellitus vs placebo and insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin), all in combination with metformin and glimepiride. Methods This randomised (using a telephone or web-based randomisation system), parallel-group, controlled 26 week trial of 581 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on prior monotherapy (HbA1c 7.5–10%) and combination therapy (7.0–10%) was conducted in 107 centres in 17 countries. The primary endpoint was HbA1c. Patients were randomised (2:1:2) to liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily (n = 232), liraglutide placebo (n = 115) and open-label insulin glargine (n = 234), all in combination with metformin (1 g twice daily) and glimepiride (4 mg once daily). Investigators, participants and study monitors were blinded to the treatment status of the liraglutide and placebo groups at all times. Results The number of patients analysed as intention to treat were: liraglutide n = 230, placebo n = 114, insulin glargine n = 232. Liraglutide reduced HbA1c significantly vs glargine (1.33% vs 1.09%; −0.24% difference, 95% CI 0.08, 0.39; p = 0.0015) and placebo (−1.09% difference, 95% CI 0.90, 1.28; p < 0.0001). There was greater weight loss with liraglutide vs placebo (treatment difference –1.39 kg, 95% CI 2.10, 0.69; p = 0.0001), and vs glargine (treatment difference −3.43 kg, 95% CI 4.00, 2.86; p < 0.0001). Liraglutide reduced systolic BP (−4.0 mmHg) vs glargine (+0.5 mmHg; −4.5 mmHg difference, 95% CI 6.8, −2.2; p = 0.0001) but not vs placebo (p = 0.0791). Rates of hypoglycaemic episodes (major, minor and symptoms only, respectively) were 0.06, 1.2 and 1.0 events/patient/year, respectively, in the liraglutide group (vs 0, 1.3, 1.8 and 0, 1.0, 0.5 with glargine and placebo, respectively). A slightly higher number of adverse events (including nausea at 14%) were reported with liraglutide, but only 9.8% of participants in the group receiving liraglutide developed anti-liraglutide antibodies. Conclusions/interpretation Liraglutide added to metformin and sulfonylurea produced significant improvement in glycaemic control and bodyweight compared with placebo and insulin glargine. The difference vs insulin glargine in HbA1c was within the predefined non-inferiority margin. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00331851 Funding: The study was funded by Novo Nordisk A/S. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-009-1472-y) contains a list of members of the LEAD-5 Study Group, which is available to authorised users.
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            Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes.

             ,  D. Kim,  Michael Baron (2004)
            This study evaluated the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing maximally effective doses of a sulfonylurea as monotherapy. This was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study conducted at 101 sites in the U.S. After a 4-week, single-blind, placebo lead-in period, 377 subjects were randomized (60% men, age 55 +/- 11 years, BMI 33 +/- 6 kg/m(2), HbA(1c) 8.6 +/- 1.2% [+/-SD]) and began 4 weeks at 5 microg subcutaneous exenatide twice daily (before breakfast and dinner; arms A and B) or placebo. Subsequently, subjects in arm B were escalated to 10 microg b.i.d. exenatide. All subjects continued sulfonylurea therapy. At week 30, HbA(1c) changes from baseline were -0.86 +/- 0.11, -0.46 +/- 0.12, and 0.12 +/- 0.09% (+/-SE) in the 10-microg, 5-microg, and placebo arms, respectively (adjusted P 7% (n = 237), 41% (10 microg), 33% (5 microg), and 9% (placebo) achieved HbA(1c)
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              Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and a sulfonylurea.

              This study evaluated the effects of exenatide, a novel incretin mimetic, in hyperglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes unable to achieve glycemic control with metformin-sulfonylurea combination therapy. A 30-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 733 subjects (aged 55 +/- 10 years, BMI 33.6 +/- 5.7 kg/m(2), A1C 8.5 +/- 1.0%; means +/- SD) randomized to 5 microg subcutaneous exenatide b.i.d. (arms A and B) or placebo for 4 weeks. Thereafter, arm A remained at 5 microg b.i.d. and arm B escalated to 10 microg b.i.d. Subjects continued taking their dose of metformin and were randomized to either maximally effective (MAX) or minimum recommended (MIN) doses of sulfonylurea. Week 30 A1C changes from baseline (+/-SE) were -0.8 +/- 0.1% (10 microg), -0.6 +/- 0.1% (5 microg), and +0.2 +/- 0.1% (placebo; adjusted P < 0.0001 vs. placebo), yielding placebo-adjusted reductions of -1.0% (10 microg) and -0.8% (5 microg). In the evaluable population, exenatide-treated subjects were more likely to achieve A1C < or =7% than placebo-treated subjects (34% [10 microg], 27% [5 microg], and 9% [placebo]; P < 0.0001). Both exenatide arms demonstrated significant weight loss (-1.6 +/- 0.2 kg from baseline each exenatide arm, -0.9 +/- 0.2 kg placebo; P < or = 0.01 vs. placebo). Mild or moderate nausea was the most frequent adverse event. The incidence of mild/moderate hypoglycemia was 28% (10 microg), 19% (5 microg), and 13% (placebo) and appeared lower with MIN than with MAX sulfonylurea treatment. Exenatide significantly reduced A1C in patients with type 2 diabetes unable to achieve adequate glycemic control with maximally effective doses of combined metformin-sulfonylurea therapy. This improvement in glycemic control was associated with no weight gain and was generally well tolerated.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                diacare
                dcare
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                September 2013
                13 August 2013
                : 36
                : 9
                : 2508-2515
                Affiliations
                1Rudolfstiftung Hospital-Vienna, Vienna, Austria
                2Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil
                3Dallas Diabetes and Endocrine Center at Medical City, Dallas, Texas
                4Stanocola Medical Clinic, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
                5Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Raritan, New Jersey
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Guntram Schernthaner, guntram.schernthaner@ 123456wienkav.at .
                Article
                2491
                10.2337/dc12-2491
                3747923
                23564919
                © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Product
                Categories
                Original Research
                Clinical Care/Education/Nutrition/Psychosocial Research

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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