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      The immune system and psychiatric disease: a basic science perspective

      1 , 2

      Clinical & Experimental Immunology

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Mental illness exerts a major burden on human health, yet evidence-based treatments are rudimentary due to a limited understanding of the underlying pathologies. Clinical studies point to roles for the immune system in psychiatric diseases, while basic science has revealed that the brain has an active and multi-cellular resident immune system that interacts with peripheral immunity and impacts behavior. In this perspective, we highlight evidence of immune involvement in human psychiatric disease and review data from animal models that link immune signaling to neuronal function and behavior. We propose a conceptual framework for linking advances in basic neuroimmunology to their potential relevance for psychiatric diseases, based on the subtypes of immune responses defined in peripheral tissues. Our goal is to identify novel areas of focus for future basic and translational studies that may reveal the potential of the immune system for diagnosing and treating mental illnesses

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          Most cited references 63

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          The role of inflammation in depression: from evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target.

          Crosstalk between inflammatory pathways and neurocircuits in the brain can lead to behavioural responses, such as avoidance and alarm, that are likely to have provided early humans with an evolutionary advantage in their interactions with pathogens and predators. However, in modern times, such interactions between inflammation and the brain appear to drive the development of depression and may contribute to non-responsiveness to current antidepressant therapies. Recent data have elucidated the mechanisms by which the innate and adaptive immune systems interact with neurotransmitters and neurocircuits to influence the risk for depression. Here, we detail our current understanding of these pathways and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting the immune system to treat depression.
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            Meta-analysis of cytokine alterations in schizophrenia: clinical status and antipsychotic effects.

            Schizophrenia is associated with immune system dysfunction, including aberrant cytokine levels. We performed a meta-analysis of these associations, considering effects of clinical status and antipsychotic treatment following an acute illness exacerbation. We identified articles by searching PubMed, PsychInfo, and Institute for Scientific Information and the reference lists of identified studies. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Effect sizes were similar for studies of acutely relapsed inpatients (AR) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) appeared to be state markers, as they were increased in AR and FEP (p < .001 for each) and normalized with antipsychotic treatment (p < .001, p = .008, and p = .005, respectively). In contrast, IL-12, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) appeared to be trait markers, as levels remained elevated in acute exacerbations and following antipsychotic treatment. There was no difference in IL-6 levels between stable medicated outpatients and control subjects (p = .69). In the cerebrospinal fluid, IL-1β was significantly decreased in schizophrenia versus controls (p = .01). Similar effect sizes in AR and FEP suggest that the association between cytokine abnormalities and acute exacerbations of schizophrenia is independent of antipsychotic medications. While some cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TGF-β) may be state markers for acute exacerbations, others (IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and sIL-2R) may be trait markers. Although these results could provide the basis for future hypothesis testing, most studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as body mass index and smoking. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Rethinking schizophrenia.

               Thomas Insel (2010)
              How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current unsatisfactory outcomes may change as we approach schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder with psychosis as a late, potentially preventable stage of the illness. This 'rethinking' of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is profoundly different from the way we have seen this illness for the past century, yields new hope for prevention and cure over the next two decades.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical & Experimental Immunology
                Clin Exp Immunol
                Wiley
                0009-9104
                1365-2249
                June 09 2019
                June 09 2019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia PA USA
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry and Weill Institute for Neurosciences University of California San FranciscoSan Francisco CA USA
                Article
                10.1111/cei.13334
                6693968
                31125426
                © 2019

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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