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      Extracellular vesicle isolation and characterization: toward clinical application

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          Abstract

          Two broad categories of extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and shed microvesicles (sMVs), which differ in size distribution as well as protein and RNA profiles, have been described. EVs are known to play key roles in cell-cell communication, acting proximally as well as systemically. This Review discusses the nature of EV subtypes, strategies for isolating EVs from both cell-culture media and body fluids, and procedures for quantifying EVs. We also discuss proteins selectively enriched in exosomes and sMVs that have the potential for use as markers to discriminate between EV subtypes, as well as various applications of EVs in clinical diagnosis.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          J Clin Invest
          J. Clin. Invest
          J Clin Invest
          The Journal of Clinical Investigation
          American Society for Clinical Investigation
          0021-9738
          1558-8238
          1 April 2016
          1 April 2016
          1 April 2017
          : 126
          : 4
          : 1152-1162
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
          [2 ]Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
          [3 ]Department of Applied Biological Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, and
          [4 ]Global Innovation Research Organization, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
          Author notes
          Address correspondence to: Richard J. Simpson, Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute of Molecular Sciences (LIMS), LIMS Building 1, Room 412, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia. Phone: 61.3.9479.3199; E-mail: Richard.simpson@ 123456latrobe.edu.au .
          Article
          PMC4811150 PMC4811150 4811150 81129
          10.1172/JCI81129
          4811150
          27035807
          9e739d06-5dfc-4ac5-8b91-5c17e6dea4a0
          Copyright © 2016, American Society for Clinical Investigation
          Categories
          Review Series

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