10 March 2021
In this paper, we present an extensive checklist of selected arthropods and their distribution in five Islands of the Azores (Santa Maria. São Miguel, Terceira, Flores and Pico). Habitat surveys included five herbaceous and four arboreal habitat types, scaling up from native to anthropogenic managed habitats. We aimed to contribute to the ongoing effort to document the terrestrial biodiversity of the world, in particular the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, as islands harbour a significant portion of unique terrestrial biodiversity. Selection of Arthropoda groups for the current checklist was based on their known richness and abundance ( Arachnida , Collembola , Hemiptera , Neuroptera , Coleoptera , Hymenoptera ), in almost all terrestrial ecosystems, as well as their importance in current Integrated Pest Management and alternative Biocontrol protocols at large (i.e. hymenopteran parasitoids and beneficial Coleoptera ). In addition, we include the list of Dermaptera , Orthoptera , Psocoptera and Thysanoptera species. These assembled groups represent part of the monitoring programme EDEN Azores (2008-2014), where all Arthropod fauna, at all strata, within nine representative habitats of the abovementioned five Islands of the Azores was recorded.
In this study, a total of 116,523 specimens, belonging to 483 species and subspecies of selected groups of arthropods, are reported by order, family and, when possible, genus and species. Hymenopteran, mostly parasitoids, accounted for the most represented taxa across all the monitoring and sampling phase of EDEN Azores (193 species and mophospecies), followed by Coleoptera (95 species); Collembola (89 species); and Araneae (72 species).
A total of 37 non-native species are reported for the first time in the Azores. Coleoptera : Asaphidion flavipes (Linnaeus, 1761) ( Carabidae ); Tachyporus dispar (Paykull, 1789) ( Staphylinidae ). Hemiptera : Acrosternum heegeri Fieber, 1861 ( Pentatomidae ). Collembola : Entomobrya regularis Stach, 1963 ( Entomobryidae ); Lepidocyrtus lusitanicus piezoensis (Simón-Benito, 2007) ( Entomobryidae ); Jordanathrix articulata (Ellis, 1974) ( Sminthuridae ); Sminthurinus quadrimaculatus (Ryder, 1879) ( Katiannidae ); Himalanura sp. ( Entomobryidae ); Protophorura sp. ( Onychiuridae ). Hymenoptera , parasitoids : Aphidius colemani Viereck, 1912 ( Braconidae ); Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 ( Braconidae ); Aphidius matricariae Viereck, 1912 ( Braconidae ); Aphidius rhopalosiphi Stefani-Perez, 1902 ( Braconidae ); Aphidius rosae (Haliday, 1834) ( Braconidae ); Aphidius urticae Haliday, 1834 ( Braconidae ); Centistidea ectoedemiae Rohwer, 1914 ( Braconidae ); Meteorus unicolor (Wesmael, 1835) ( Braconidae ); Meteorus collaris (Spin.) Hal. – Ruschka, Fulmek, 1915 ( Braconidae ); Orthostigma cratospilum (Thomson, 1895) ( Braconidae ); Orthostigma latriventris Ratzeburg, 1844 ( Braconidae ); two other species of Orthostigma sp.; Pseudopezomachus bituberculatus (Marshall, 1905) ( Braconidae ); Tanycarpa punctata (van Achterberg, 1976) ( Braconidae ); Gonatopus clavipes (Thunberg, 1827) ( Dryinidae ). New genera not previously recorded for the Azores include: Pycnetron sp. ( Chalcidoidea : Pteromalidae ); four species of Aspilota sp. ( Braconidae : Alysiinae ); four species of Chorebus sp. ( Braconidae : Aphidiinae : Alysiinae ); Microgaster sp. ( Braconidae : Microgastrinae ); Homolobus sp. ( Braconidae : Homolobinae ); Lodbrokia sp. ( Braconidae : Alysiinae ).
These 37 taxa were found in several Islands and five are new species for Flores Island, 10 species are new for Pico Island, 12 species are new for Terceira Island, 19 species are new for S. Miguel Island and five species are new for S. Maria Island.
Additional species records for the Islands included: Flores (5 Collembola , 9 Araneae ; 2 Hemiptera ; 8 Coleoptera , 8 Hymenoptera ), Pico (4 Collembola ; 7 Araneae ; 4 Hemiptera ; 11 Coleoptera ; 9 Hymenoptera ), Terceira (4 Collembola ; 1 Araneae ; 3 Hymenoptera ), S. Miguel (1 Araneae ; 2 Coleoptera ; 3 Hymenoptera ), S. Maria (5 Collembola ; 3 Araneae ; 2 Hemiptera ; 2 Hymenoptera ).