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      Standardised arthropod (Arthropoda) inventory across natural and anthropogenic impacted habitats in the Azores archipelago

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          Abstract

          Background

          In this paper, we present an extensive checklist of selected arthropods and their distribution in five Islands of the Azores (Santa Maria. São Miguel, Terceira, Flores and Pico). Habitat surveys included five herbaceous and four arboreal habitat types, scaling up from native to anthropogenic managed habitats. We aimed to contribute to the ongoing effort to document the terrestrial biodiversity of the world, in particular the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, as islands harbour a significant portion of unique terrestrial biodiversity. Selection of Arthropoda groups for the current checklist was based on their known richness and abundance ( Arachnida , Collembola , Hemiptera , Neuroptera , Coleoptera , Hymenoptera ), in almost all terrestrial ecosystems, as well as their importance in current Integrated Pest Management and alternative Biocontrol protocols at large (i.e. hymenopteran parasitoids and beneficial Coleoptera ). In addition, we include the list of Dermaptera , Orthoptera , Psocoptera and Thysanoptera species. These assembled groups represent part of the monitoring programme EDEN Azores (2008-2014), where all Arthropod fauna, at all strata, within nine representative habitats of the abovementioned five Islands of the Azores was recorded.

          New information

          In this study, a total of 116,523 specimens, belonging to 483 species and subspecies of selected groups of arthropods, are reported by order, family and, when possible, genus and species. Hymenopteran, mostly parasitoids, accounted for the most represented taxa across all the monitoring and sampling phase of EDEN Azores (193 species and mophospecies), followed by Coleoptera (95 species); Collembola (89 species); and Araneae (72 species).

          A total of 37 non-native species are reported for the first time in the Azores. Coleoptera : Asaphidion flavipes (Linnaeus, 1761) ( Carabidae ); Tachyporus dispar (Paykull, 1789) ( Staphylinidae ). Hemiptera : Acrosternum heegeri Fieber, 1861 ( Pentatomidae ). Collembola : Entomobrya regularis Stach, 1963 ( Entomobryidae ); Lepidocyrtus lusitanicus piezoensis (Simón-Benito, 2007) ( Entomobryidae ); Jordanathrix articulata (Ellis, 1974) ( Sminthuridae ); Sminthurinus quadrimaculatus (Ryder, 1879) ( Katiannidae ); Himalanura sp. ( Entomobryidae ); Protophorura sp. ( Onychiuridae ). Hymenoptera , parasitoids : Aphidius colemani Viereck, 1912 ( Braconidae ); Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 ( Braconidae ); Aphidius matricariae Viereck, 1912 ( Braconidae ); Aphidius rhopalosiphi Stefani-Perez, 1902 ( Braconidae ); Aphidius rosae (Haliday, 1834) ( Braconidae ); Aphidius urticae Haliday, 1834 ( Braconidae ); Centistidea ectoedemiae Rohwer, 1914 ( Braconidae ); Meteorus unicolor (Wesmael, 1835) ( Braconidae ); Meteorus collaris (Spin.) Hal. – Ruschka, Fulmek, 1915 ( Braconidae ); Orthostigma cratospilum (Thomson, 1895) ( Braconidae ); Orthostigma latriventris Ratzeburg, 1844 ( Braconidae ); two other species of Orthostigma sp.; Pseudopezomachus bituberculatus (Marshall, 1905) ( Braconidae ); Tanycarpa punctata (van Achterberg, 1976) ( Braconidae ); Gonatopus clavipes (Thunberg, 1827) ( Dryinidae ). New genera not previously recorded for the Azores include: Pycnetron sp. ( Chalcidoidea : Pteromalidae ); four species of Aspilota sp. ( Braconidae : Alysiinae ); four species of Chorebus sp. ( Braconidae : Aphidiinae : Alysiinae ); Microgaster sp. ( Braconidae : Microgastrinae ); Homolobus sp. ( Braconidae : Homolobinae ); Lodbrokia sp. ( Braconidae : Alysiinae ).

          These 37 taxa were found in several Islands and five are new species for Flores Island, 10 species are new for Pico Island, 12 species are new for Terceira Island, 19 species are new for S. Miguel Island and five species are new for S. Maria Island.

          Additional species records for the Islands included: Flores (5 Collembola , 9 Araneae ; 2 Hemiptera ; 8 Coleoptera , 8 Hymenoptera ), Pico (4 Collembola ; 7 Araneae ; 4 Hemiptera ; 11 Coleoptera ; 9 Hymenoptera ), Terceira (4 Collembola ; 1 Araneae ; 3 Hymenoptera ), S. Miguel (1 Araneae ; 2 Coleoptera ; 3 Hymenoptera ), S. Maria (5 Collembola ; 3 Araneae ; 2 Hemiptera ; 2 Hymenoptera ).

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          Most cited references 50

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          Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers

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            The use of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) as bioindicators of sustainable forest management: A review

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              Island biogeography: Taking the long view of nature’s laboratories

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2021
                10 March 2021
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Rua Madre de Deus, 9500, Ponta Delgada, Portugal cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Rua Madre de Deus, 9500 Ponta Delgada Portugal
                [2 ] cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, São Pedro, 9700-042, Angra do Heroismo, Portugal cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, São Pedro, 9700-042 Angra do Heroismo Portugal
                [3 ] IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Islands Specialist Group, Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Islands Specialist Group Angra do Heroísmo Portugal
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Paulo A. V. Borges ( paulo.av.borges@ 123456uac.pt ).

                Academic editor: Pedro Cardoso

                Article
                62157 15002
                10.3897/BDJ.9.e62157
                7969584
                José Marcelino, Paulo A. V. Borges, Isabel Borges, Enésima Pereira, Vasco Santos, António Onofre Soares

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 48
                Funding
                This study was finance by FLAD – Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento and by the Direção Regional Ciencia, Tecnologia e Comércio (DRCTC) & PROEMPREGO, of the Azores. This study was also financed by FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through Operational Program Azores 2020, under the following projects AZORESBIOPORTAL –PORBIOTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072), and under the project ECO2-TUTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000081).
                Categories
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Azores Biota
                Entognatha
                Insecta
                Arachnida
                Arthropoda
                Animalia
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Europe

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