This study examined injury rates and risk factors for discharge in a cohort of 756 men and 474 women in U.S. Army basic combat training (BCT) at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Investigators systematically screened trainee medical records for injuries and collected medical recommendations to temporarily remove a trainee from BCT to allow recovery from an injury. The BCT unit provided Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and trainee demographic data. Discharges were identified by reviewing discharge packets and were confirmed through rosters from the BCT units. There were 102 men and 108 women discharged. Person-time injury incidence rates (for time-loss injuries) among discharged and nondischarged men were 1.87 and 0.45 cases/100 person-days, respectively (p < 0.01); the rates for discharged and nondischarged women were 1.95 and 1.01 cases/100 person-days, respectively (p < 0.01). Men had a higher risk of discharge if they had a time-loss injury (p < 0.01), but women did not (p = 0.28). Other discharge risk factors for both men and women included a medical recommendation for removal from training to recover from an injury, lower performance on any of the three APFT events, and lower educational level. Women with more body mass or a higher body mass index also had a marginally higher risk of discharge.