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Severe atypical herpes zoster as an initial symptom of fatal myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia and blast excess (RAEB II)

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      Abstract

      Herpes zoster is a common disease caused due to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection with increasing incidence by age. If the patient has a severe, extended, or treatment-recalcitrant course of herpes zoster, this must be a red flag to search for underlying pathologies. Here, we report about a 64-year-old male patient with diabetes, who came to our emergency department because of general malaise, fever, chills, and a pronounced nuchal and facial swelling on the left side. Based on herpetiform-grouped vesicles and yellowish crusts, an impetiginized facial herpes zoster was diagnosed, and combined antiviral and antibiotic treatment was initiated. He was HIV negative. Despite intensified treatment, his situation worsened. We observed blasts in peripheral blood, but bone marrow biopsy was initially denied. Some days later after deterioration of his disease, he accepted further diagnostics. A myelodysplastic syndrome with blast excess (refractory anemia and blast excess II, RAEB II) could be confirmed. The following translocations were detected: t(2;12)(p13; q13) and t(6;9)(p22;q34). REAB II has an unfortunate prognosis. Cytoreductive treatment was initiated by the hematooncologist. Unfortunately, the patient deceased due to septic shock.

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      Most cited references 9

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      Community-acquired infections and their association with myeloid malignancies.

      Antigenic stimulation is a proposed aetiologic mechanism for many haematological malignancies. Limited evidence suggests that community-acquired infections may increase the risk of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, associations with other myeloid malignancies including chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are unknown.
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        European consensus-based (S2k) Guideline on the Management of Herpes Zoster - guided by the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) in cooperation with the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV), Part 1: Diagnosis.

        Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. The aim of this European project was the elaboration of a consensus-based guideline on the management of patients who present with HZ, considering different patient populations and different localizations. This interdisciplinary guideline aims at an improvement of the outcomes of the acute HZ management concerning disease duration, acute pain and quality of life of the affected patients and at a reduction of the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications. The guideline development followed a structured and predefined process, considering the quality criteria for guidelines development as suggested by the AGREE II instrument. The steering group was responsible for the planning and the organization of the guideline development process (Division of Evidence based Medicine, dEBM). The expert panel was nominated by virtue of clinical expertise and/or scientific experience and included experts from the fields of dermatology, virology/infectiology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, neurology and anaesthesiology. Recommendations for clinical practice were formally consented during the consensus conference, explicitly considering different relevant aspects. The guideline was approved by the commissioning societies after an extensive internal and external review process. In this first part of the guideline, diagnostic means have been evaluated. The expert panel formally consented recommendations for the management of patients with (suspected) HZ, referring to the assessment of HZ patients, considering various specific clinical situations. Users of the guideline must carefully check whether the recommendations are appropriate for the context of intended application. In the setting of an international guideline, it is generally important to consider different national approaches and legal circumstances with regard to the regulatory approval, availability and reimbursement of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
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          [Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia].

          Herpes zoster develops by endogenous reactivation of varizella zoster virus (VZV). Incidence increases with age. Females are more frequently affected than males. The reactivation rate in seropositive individuals is about 20 %. After a short prodromal stage, herpetiform-grouped vesicles appear in segmental arrangement. Pain and paresthesia are typical zoster symptoms. Complications like bacterial superinfections, vasculopathy, paresis, and oculopathy may occur. During pregnancy herpes zoster is a threat for mother and child. Among elderly patients, cardiovascular risk is increased during the first week of herpes zoster infection. Postherpetic neuropathy is feared. Diagnosis can be made clinically and by the use of polymerase chain reaction. First-line treatment is systemic antiviral drug therapy with either acyclovir or brivudine. Adjuvant therapies consist of pain management and topical treatment.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany
            [2 ]Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR), Sofia, Bulgaria
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Uwe Wollina, Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Friedrichstrasse 41, 01067 Dresden, Germany, Email wollina-uw@ 123456khdf.de
            Journal
            Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol
            Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol
            Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
            Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
            Dove Medical Press
            1178-7015
            2017
            18 May 2017
            : 10
            : 195-198
            5478159
            10.2147/CCID.S133966
            ccid-10-195
            © 2017 Wollina et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

            The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

            Categories
            Case Report

            Dermatology

            emergency, sepsis, myelodysplastic syndrome, varicella zoster virus, herpes zoster

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