Permethrin and DDT resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. associated with a leucine-serine knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was discovered recently in western Kenya where a large scale permethrin-impregnated bed net (ITN) program has been implemented. Collections of An. gambiae s.l. were made from intervention and control villages prior to and after onset of the program. The kdr genotypes were determined using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction diagnostic tests. In An. gambiae s.s., the frequency of the kdr mutation prior to ITN introduction was approximately 3-4% in western Kenya and zero in samples from the coast. After ITN introduction, the kdr mutation increased in ITN and neighboring villages from approximately 4% to approximately 8%, but remained unchanged in villages at least 20 km distant and was not detected in coastal Kenya. The identical leucine-serine mutation was found in a single An. arabiensis individual among 658 tested. The leucine-phenylalanine kdr mutation common in west African An. gambiae populations was not detected in An. gambiae s.l. from Kenya. Implications for the population structure and control of An. gambiae are discussed.