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      Sympathetic neuron–associated macrophages contribute to obesity by importing and metabolizing norepinephrine

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          Most cited references 21

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          The origin and development of glial cells in peripheral nerves.

          During the development of peripheral nerves, neural crest cells generate myelinating and non-myelinating glial cells in a process that parallels gliogenesis from the germinal layers of the CNS. Unlike central gliogenesis, neural crest development involves a protracted embryonic phase devoted to the generation of, first, the Schwann cell precursor and then the immature Schwann cell, a cell whose fate as a myelinating or non-myelinating cell has yet to be determined. Embryonic nerves therefore offer a particular opportunity to analyse the early steps of gliogenesis from transient multipotent stem cells, and to understand how this process is integrated with organogenesis of peripheral nerves.
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            Langerhans cells renew in the skin throughout life under steady-state conditions.

            Langerhans cells (LCs) are bone marrow (BM)-derived epidermal dendritic cells (DCs) that represent a critical immunologic barrier to the external environment, but little is known about their life cycle. Here, we show that in lethally irradiated mice that had received BM transplants, LCs of host origin remained for at least 18 months, whereas DCs in other organs were almost completely replaced by donor cells within 2 months. In parabiotic mice with separate organs, but a shared blood circulation, there was no mixing of LCs. However, in skin exposed to ultraviolet light, LCs rapidly disappeared and were replaced by circulating LC precursors within 2 weeks. The recruitment of new LCs was dependent on their expression of the CCR2 chemokine receptor and on the secretion of CCR2-binding chemokines by inflamed skin. These data indicate that under steady-state conditions, LCs are maintained locally, but inflammatory changes in the skin result in their replacement by blood-borne LC progenitors.
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              Local proliferation of macrophages contributes to obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation.

              Adipose tissue (AT) of obese mice and humans accumulates immune cells, which secrete cytokines that can promote insulin resistance. AT macrophages (ATMs) are thought to originate from bone-marrow-derived monocytes, which infiltrate the tissue from the circulation. Here, we show that a major fraction of macrophages unexpectedly undergo cell division locally within AT, as detected by Ki67 expression and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Macrophages within the visceral AT (VAT), but not those in other tissues (including liver and spleen), displayed increased proliferation in obesity. Importantly, depletion of blood monocytes had no impact on ATM content, whereas their proliferation in situ continued. Treatment with monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) induced macrophage cell division in AT explants, whereas mcp-1 deficiency in vivo decreased ATM proliferation. These results reveal that, in addition to blood monocyte recruitment, in situ proliferation driven by MCP-1 is an important process by which macrophages accumulate in the VAT in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Medicine
                Nat Med
                Springer Nature
                1078-8956
                1546-170X
                October 9 2017
                October 9 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nm.4422
                © 2017
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