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The general methods used to complete measurements of human exposures are identified
and illustrations are provided for the cases of indirect and direct methods used for
exposure analysis. The application of the techniques for external measurements of
exposure, microenvironmental and personal monitors, are placed in the context of the
need to test hypotheses concerning the biological effects of concern. The linkage
of external measurements to measurements made in biological fluids is explored for
a suite of contaminants. This information is placed in the context of the scientific
framework used to conduct exposure assessment. Examples are taken from research on
volatile organics and for a large scale problem: hazardous waste sites.