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Coffee Intake as a Risk Indicator for Tooth Loss in Korean Adults

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      Abstract

      The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee intake and tooth loss. This study hypothesized that the intake of coffee would increase the prevalence of tooth loss in Korean adults. Subject information was obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010–2011. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, anthropometric and biochemical status, metabolic health and glucose tolerance status, as well as oral health behaviors were evaluated. The number of remaining teeth was negatively associated with the frequency of coffee intake ( p-value < 0.05). Daily coffee consumers had significantly higher levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (all p-value < 0.05). Individuals with less than 20 remaining teeth had higher BMI, WC, diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-C (all p-value < 0.05). Finally, participants who drank coffee on a daily basis were more likely to have fewer remaining teeth. The prevalence of having less than 20 remaining teeth was 69% higher in groups with daily coffee intake than those with coffee intake of less than once a month after adjustment for potential covariates (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 1.69 [1.35, 2.13]). In conclusion, daily coffee consumption is closely associated with tooth loss in Korean adults.

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      Coffee and health: a review of recent human research.

      Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.
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        Caffeine use in children: what we know, what we have left to learn, and why we should worry.

        Caffeine is a widely used psychoactive substance in both adults and children that is legal, easy to obtain, and socially acceptable to consume. Although once relatively restricted to use among adults, caffeine-containing drinks are now consumed regularly by children. In addition, some caffeine-containing beverages are specifically marketed to children as young as 4 years of age. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the effects of caffeine use on behavior and physiology of children remains understudied and poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review what is known about caffeine use in children and adolescents, to discuss why children and adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine, and to propose how caffeine consumption within this population may potentiate the rewarding properties of other substances. The following topics are reviewed: (1) tolerance and addiction to caffeine, (2) sensitization and cross-sensitization to the effects of caffeine, (3) caffeine self-administration and reinforcing value, and (4) conditioning of preferences for caffeine-containing beverages in both adults and children.
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          International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

          Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9. Diabetics and individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular, metabolic, hepatorenal, and neurologic disease who are taking medications that may be affected by high glycemic load foods, caffeine, and/or other stimulants should avoid use of ED and/or ES unless approved by their physician.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0479, GRID grid.411134.2, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, , Korea University Anam Hospital, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 4224, GRID grid.411947.e, Department of Biostatistics, , College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0479, GRID grid.411134.2, Department of Prosthodontics, , Korea University Anam Hospital, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 4224, GRID grid.411947.e, Department of Periodontics, , College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
            Contributors
            yeonjochoi@yahoo.co.kr
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8915-1555, jbassoonis@yahoo.co.kr
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            5 February 2018
            5 February 2018
            2018
            : 8
            29402943 5799212 20789 10.1038/s41598-018-20789-0
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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