The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee intake and tooth loss. This study hypothesized that the intake of coffee would increase the prevalence of tooth loss in Korean adults. Subject information was obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010–2011. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, anthropometric and biochemical status, metabolic health and glucose tolerance status, as well as oral health behaviors were evaluated. The number of remaining teeth was negatively associated with the frequency of coffee intake ( p-value < 0.05). Daily coffee consumers had significantly higher levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (all p-value < 0.05). Individuals with less than 20 remaining teeth had higher BMI, WC, diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-C (all p-value < 0.05). Finally, participants who drank coffee on a daily basis were more likely to have fewer remaining teeth. The prevalence of having less than 20 remaining teeth was 69% higher in groups with daily coffee intake than those with coffee intake of less than once a month after adjustment for potential covariates (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 1.69 [1.35, 2.13]). In conclusion, daily coffee consumption is closely associated with tooth loss in Korean adults.