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Coffee Intake as a Risk Indicator for Tooth Loss in Korean Adults

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      Abstract

      The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee intake and tooth loss. This study hypothesized that the intake of coffee would increase the prevalence of tooth loss in Korean adults. Subject information was obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010–2011. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, anthropometric and biochemical status, metabolic health and glucose tolerance status, as well as oral health behaviors were evaluated. The number of remaining teeth was negatively associated with the frequency of coffee intake (p-value < 0.05). Daily coffee consumers had significantly higher levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (all p-value < 0.05). Individuals with less than 20 remaining teeth had higher BMI, WC, diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-C (all p-value < 0.05). Finally, participants who drank coffee on a daily basis were more likely to have fewer remaining teeth. The prevalence of having less than 20 remaining teeth was 69% higher in groups with daily coffee intake than those with coffee intake of less than once a month after adjustment for potential covariates (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 1.69 [1.35, 2.13]). In conclusion, daily coffee consumption is closely associated with tooth loss in Korean adults.

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      Coffee and health: a review of recent human research.

      Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.
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        Caffeine use in children: what we know, what we have left to learn, and why we should worry.

        Caffeine is a widely used psychoactive substance in both adults and children that is legal, easy to obtain, and socially acceptable to consume. Although once relatively restricted to use among adults, caffeine-containing drinks are now consumed regularly by children. In addition, some caffeine-containing beverages are specifically marketed to children as young as 4 years of age. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the effects of caffeine use on behavior and physiology of children remains understudied and poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review what is known about caffeine use in children and adolescents, to discuss why children and adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine, and to propose how caffeine consumption within this population may potentiate the rewarding properties of other substances. The following topics are reviewed: (1) tolerance and addiction to caffeine, (2) sensitization and cross-sensitization to the effects of caffeine, (3) caffeine self-administration and reinforcing value, and (4) conditioning of preferences for caffeine-containing beverages in both adults and children.
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          Coffee consumption and human health--beneficial or detrimental?--Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

          Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide. Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water. Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds, cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0479, GRID grid.411134.2, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, , Korea University Anam Hospital, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 4224, GRID grid.411947.e, Department of Biostatistics, , College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0479, GRID grid.411134.2, Department of Prosthodontics, , Korea University Anam Hospital, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 4224, GRID grid.411947.e, Department of Periodontics, , College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
            Contributors
            yeonjochoi@yahoo.co.kr
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8915-1555, jbassoonis@yahoo.co.kr
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            5 February 2018
            5 February 2018
            2018
            : 8
            29402943
            5799212
            20789
            10.1038/s41598-018-20789-0
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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