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      Association of Initial Twice-Weekly Hemodialysis Treatment with Preservation of Residual Kidney Function in ESRD Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Residual kidney function (RKF) has consistently been a predictor of greater survival in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The relationship between hemodialysis (HD) treatment frequency and RKF preservation has not been well examined. We hypothesized that initial twice-weekly HD helps in maintaining a longer RKF. Methods: In a dialysis center in Shanghai, 168 ESRD patients were screened and finally 85 patients were identified for this main cohort study. We first examined these 85 MHD patients; 30 of them were initiated with twice-weekly HD for 6 months or longer and 55 patients were started and maintained on thrice-weekly HD treatment. Then a subcohort study in 48 incident MHD patients was implemented to assess the independent risk factors responsible for RKF decline during the first year of HD therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then employed to examine the odds ratio of RKF loss. Results: The main cohort study showed that the clinical outcomes were almost the same between the two groups in 85 patients, but the percent of patients with RKF loss was significantly lower in the twice-weekly group compared with the thrice-weekly group, especially during the first year of HD initiation. In the 48 incident MHD patients, we found no significant differences between the two groups except for variations in the HD frequency, weekly Kt/V. The multivariate analysis showed that factors such as the male gender, HD frequency, URR and intradialytic hypotension episode were associated with RKF loss, and the odds ratio of RKF loss for each additional HD treatment per week was 7.2. Conclusion: Twice-weekly HD during the first year of dialysis therapy appears to be associated with better RKF preservation.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Hemodialysis-associated hypotension as an independent risk factor for two-year mortality in hemodialysis patients.

          The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and mortality in hemodialysis patients has remained controversial. Some studies suggested that a lower pre- or postdialysis BP was associated with excess mortality, while others showed poorer outcome in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of hemodialysis-associated hypotension on mortality. We recruited 1244 patients (685 males; mean age, 60 +/- 13 years) who underwent hemodialysis in 28 units during the two-year study period beginning in December 1999. Pre-, intra-, and postdialysis BP, and BP upon standing soon after hemodialysis, were measured in all patients at entry. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect on mortality of pre-, intra-, and postdialysis BP, a fall in BP during hemodialysis, and a fall in BP upon standing soon after hemodialysis. During the study period, 149 patients died. Logistic models identified the lowest intradialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) and degree of fall in SBP upon standing soon after hemodialysis as significant factors affecting mortality, but not pre- or postdialysis SBP and diastolic BP. The adjusted odds ratio for death was 0.79 (95% CI 0.64-0.98) when the lowest intradialysis SBP was analyzed in increments of 20 mm Hg, and was 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.98) when the fall in SBP upon standing soon after hemodialysis was analyzed in increments of 10 mm Hg. These results suggest that intradialysis hypotension and orthostatic hypotension after hemodialysis are significant and independent factors affecting mortality in hemodialysis patients.
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            Clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis adequacy, update 2006.

              (2006)
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              Relative contribution of residual renal function and different measures of adequacy to survival in hemodialysis patients: an analysis of the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD)-2.

              A high delivered Kt/V(urea) (dKt/V(urea)) is advocated in the U.S. National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines on hemodialysis (HD) adequacy, irrespective of the presence of residual renal function. The contribution of treatment adequacy and residual renal function to patient survival was investigated. The Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis is a prospective multicenter study that includes incident ESRD patients older than 18 yr. The longitudinal data on residual renal function and dialysis adequacy of patients who were treated with HD 3 mo after the initiation of dialysis (n = 740) were analyzed. The mean renal Kt/V(urea) (rKt/V(urea)) at 3 mo was 0.7/wk (SD 0.6) and the dKt/V(urea) at 3 mo was 2.7/wk (SD 0.8). Both components of urea clearance were associated with a better survival (for each increase of 1/wk in rKt/V(urea), relative risk of death = 0.44 [P < 0.0001]; dKt/V(urea), relative risk of death = 0.76 [P < 0.01]). However, the effect of dKt/V(urea) on mortality was strongly dependent on the presence of rKt/V(urea), low values for dKt/V(urea) of <2.9/wk being associated with a significantly higher mortality in anuric patients only. Furthermore, an excess of ultrafiltration in relation to interdialytic weight gain was associated with an increase in mortality independent of dKt/V(urea). In conclusion, residual renal clearance seems to be an important predictor of survival in HD patients, and the dKt/V(urea) should be tuned appropriately to the presence of renal function. Further studies are required to substantiate the important role of fluid balance in HD adequacy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                September 2014
                23 August 2014
                : 40
                : 2
                : 140-150
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China; bHarold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, Calif., USA
                Author notes
                *Jing Chen, MD, PhD, Division of Nephrology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040 (P.R. China), E-Mail chenjing1998@fudan.edu.cn
                Article
                365819 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:140-150
                10.1159/000365819
                25171342
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Adequacy, RKF, GFR, Hemodialysis frequency

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