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      Metabolism of the Thyroid Hormones

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          Abstract

          This review covers the current knowledge about the various metabolic pathways involved in the conversion of thyroid hormones to the thyromimetically active and inactive iodothyronines. The concerted mechanism of systemic and local production of iodothyronines by tissue-specific iodothyronine deiodinase isozymes will ultimately determine the expression of thyroid hormone action. This is exemplified for the regulation of synthesis and release of TSH by iodothyronines at the pituitary level. Iodothyronine metabolites, e.g. Triac, rT<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> amine may modulate TSH secretion, and alterations of local pituitary deiodination (e.g. iopanoate inhibition) influence diurnal TSH secretion without changing TRH-dependent episodic TSH secretion pattern. A summary of structure-activity relationships of > 200 naturally occurring and synthetic ligands of rat liver type I iodothyronine deiodinase isozyme propylthiouracil-sensitive) in vitro allows the design of iodothyronine analogues which either serve as specific substrates or antagonists of iodothyronine binding and metabolizing proteins. Furthermore, a complete picture of the ligand-complementary active site of the type I isozyme can be derived. A synthetic ‘structurally optimized’ iodothyronine-analogue flavonoid inhibitor of the type I deiodinase is able to displace T<sub>4</sub> from binding to thyroxine-binding prealbumin and leads to unexpected organ-specific alterations of thyroid hormone metabolism and expression of thyroid hormone actions in an animal model. Therefore, for a complete understanding of thyroid hormone metabolism and action, thyroid hormone transport, cellular compartmentalization, and alternate pathways also have to be considered.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          Horm Res Paediatr
          10.1159/issn.1663-2818
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-4582-2
          978-3-318-01984-1
          1663-2818
          1663-2826
          1987
          1987
          28 November 2008
          : 26
          : 1-4
          : 58-78
          Affiliations
          Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung für klinische Endokrinologie, Departement Innere Medizin, Hannover, FRG
          Article
          180686 Horm Res 1987;26:58–78
          10.1159/000180686
          3297964
          © 1987 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 21
          Categories
          Full Invited Paper

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