Renal tissues of callitrichids with IgM nephropathy were immunohistochemically examined for the participation of IgA in pathogenesis. In 58 histopathologically nephropathy-positive kidneys, IgM predominated in 20 cases and IgA in 7 cases, and in 31 cases both immunoglobulins were rated to be approximately equally involved. The disease, therefore, might be described as IgM/IgA nephropathy. The renal tissues and sera were also tested for nutritional antigens or antinutritional antigen antibodies, using immunohistochemistry and Western blots (tissues) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sera). Evidences of nutritional antigens in the renal tissues were inconclusive, although circulating IgG class antibodies against cereals, milk, and egg proteins were present in quite a number of sera. Particular consideration was paid to IgA-antigliadin antibodies, which were statistically significantly associated with nephropathy as were IgA rheumatoid factors. The findings are discussed in relation to human IgA and IgM nephropathies.