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      Two-Dimensional Materials in Large-Areas: Synthesis, Properties and Applications


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          • Two-dimensional materials including TMDCs, hBN, graphene, non-layered compounds, black phosphorous, Xenes and other emerging materials with large lateral dimensions exceeding a hundred micrometres are summarised detailing their synthetic strategies.

          • Crystal quality optimisations and defect engineering are discussed for large-area two-dimensional materials synthesis.

          • Electronics and optoelectronics applications enabled by large-area two-dimensional materials are explored.



          Large-area and high-quality two-dimensional crystals are the basis for the development of the next-generation electronic and optical devices. The synthesis of two-dimensional materials in wafer scales is the first critical step for future technology uptake by the industries; however, currently presented as a significant challenge. Substantial efforts have been devoted to producing atomically thin two-dimensional materials with large lateral dimensions, controllable and uniform thicknesses, large crystal domains and minimum defects. In this review, recent advances in synthetic routes to obtain high-quality two-dimensional crystals with lateral sizes exceeding a hundred micrometres are outlined. Applications of the achieved large-area two-dimensional crystals in electronics and optoelectronics are summarised, and advantages and disadvantages of each approach considering ease of the synthesis, defects, grain sizes and uniformity are discussed.

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          Most cited references181

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.
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            Single-layer MoS2 transistors.

            Two-dimensional materials are attractive for use in next-generation nanoelectronic devices because, compared to one-dimensional materials, it is relatively easy to fabricate complex structures from them. The most widely studied two-dimensional material is graphene, both because of its rich physics and its high mobility. However, pristine graphene does not have a bandgap, a property that is essential for many applications, including transistors. Engineering a graphene bandgap increases fabrication complexity and either reduces mobilities to the level of strained silicon films or requires high voltages. Although single layers of MoS(2) have a large intrinsic bandgap of 1.8 eV (ref. 16), previously reported mobilities in the 0.5-3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) range are too low for practical devices. Here, we use a halfnium oxide gate dielectric to demonstrate a room-temperature single-layer MoS(2) mobility of at least 200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), similar to that of graphene nanoribbons, and demonstrate transistors with room-temperature current on/off ratios of 1 × 10(8) and ultralow standby power dissipation. Because monolayer MoS(2) has a direct bandgap, it can be used to construct interband tunnel FETs, which offer lower power consumption than classical transistors. Monolayer MoS(2) could also complement graphene in applications that require thin transparent semiconductors, such as optoelectronics and energy harvesting.
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              Two-dimensional atomic crystals

              We report free-standing atomic crystals that are strictly 2D and can be viewed as individual atomic planes pulled out of bulk crystals or as unrolled single-wall nanotubes. By using micromechanical cleavage, we have prepared and studied a variety of 2D crystals including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides, and complex oxides. These atomically thin sheets (essentially gigantic 2D molecules unprotected from the immediate environment) are stable under ambient conditions, exhibit high crystal quality, and are continuous on a macroscopic scale.

                Author and article information

                Nanomicro Lett
                Nanomicro Lett
                Nano-Micro Letters
                Springer Singapore (Singapore )
                28 February 2020
                28 February 2020
                December 2020
                : 12
                [1 ]GRID grid.64938.30, ISNI 0000 0000 9558 9911, College of Materials Science and Technology, , Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, ; Nanjing, 211100 People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]GRID grid.1008.9, ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, Department of Chemical Engineering, , The University of Melbourne, ; Parkville, VIC 3010 Australia
                [3 ]GRID grid.1017.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2163 3550, School of Engineering, , RMIT University, ; Melbourne, VIC 3000 Australia
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                two-dimensional materials,large-area,electronics,optoelectronics,defect engineering


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