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      Endocytosis and exocytosis of nanoparticles in mammalian cells

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          Abstract

          Engineered nanoparticles that can be injected into the human body hold tremendous potential to detect and treat complex diseases. Understanding of the endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic application. In particular, exocytosis is of significance in the removal of nanoparticles with drugs and contrast agents from the body, while endocytosis is of great importance for the targeting of nanoparticles in disease sites. Here, we review the recent research on the endocytosis and exocytosis of functionalized nanoparticles based on various sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries. We believe that this review contributes to the design of safe nanoparticles that can efficiently enter and leave human cells and tissues.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Nanoparticle-mediated cellular response is size-dependent.

          Nanostructures of different sizes, shapes and material properties have many applications in biomedical imaging, clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. In spite of what has been achieved so far, a complete understanding of how cells interact with nanostructures of well-defined sizes, at the molecular level, remains poorly understood. Here we show that gold and silver nanoparticles coated with antibodies can regulate the process of membrane receptor internalization. The binding and activation of membrane receptors and subsequent protein expression strongly depend on nanoparticle size. Although all nanoparticles within the 2-100 nm size range were found to alter signalling processes essential for basic cell functions (including cell death), 40- and 50-nm nanoparticles demonstrated the greatest effect. These results show that nanoparticles should no longer be viewed as simple carriers for biomedical applications, but can also play an active role in mediating biological effects. The findings presented here may assist in the design of nanoscale delivery and therapeutic systems and provide insights into nanotoxicity.
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            Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal of protein-coated gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes.

            We investigated the mechanism by which transferrin-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NP) of different sizes and shapes entered mammalian cells. We determined that transferrin-coated Au NP entered the cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. The NPs exocytosed out of the cells in a linear relationship to size. This was different than the relationship between uptake and size. Furthermore, we developed a mathematical equation to predict the relationship of size versus exocytosis for different cell lines. These studies will provide guidelines for developing NPs for imaging and drug delivery applications, which will require "controlling" NP accumulation rate. These studies will also have implications in determining nanotoxicity.
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              The selective value of bacterial shape.

              Why do bacteria have shape? Is morphology valuable or just a trivial secondary characteristic? Why should bacteria have one shape instead of another? Three broad considerations suggest that bacterial shapes are not accidental but are biologically important: cells adopt uniform morphologies from among a wide variety of possibilities, some cells modify their shape as conditions demand, and morphology can be tracked through evolutionary lineages. All of these imply that shape is a selectable feature that aids survival. The aim of this review is to spell out the physical, environmental, and biological forces that favor different bacterial morphologies and which, therefore, contribute to natural selection. Specifically, cell shape is driven by eight general considerations: nutrient access, cell division and segregation, attachment to surfaces, passive dispersal, active motility, polar differentiation, the need to escape predators, and the advantages of cellular differentiation. Bacteria respond to these forces by performing a type of calculus, integrating over a number of environmental and behavioral factors to produce a size and shape that are optimal for the circumstances in which they live. Just as we are beginning to answer how bacteria create their shapes, it seems reasonable and essential that we expand our efforts to understand why they do so.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                2014
                06 May 2014
                : 9
                : Suppl 1
                : 51-63
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Institute for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ji-Ho Park, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Institute for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 42 350 4330, Email jihopark@ 123456kaist.ac.kr
                Article
                ijn-9-051
                10.2147/IJN.S26592
                4024976
                © 2014 Oh and Park. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Ltd, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine

                toxicity, nanoparticle, macrophage, cancer cell, exocytosis, endocytosis, drug delivery

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