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      Preanesthetic dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg single infusion is a simple, easy, and economic adjuvant for general anesthesia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Dexmedetomidine is an α 2-adrenoreceptor agonist with sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects, and it has more selective α 2-adrenergic effect than clonidine. We evaluate the effect of preansethetic dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg single infusion on sedation, hemodynamics, anesthetic consumption, and recovery profiles during anesthesia.

          Methods

          Forty-two female patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II undergoing gynecologic surgery with anticipated operation time of 2 h, were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg (Dex group) or saline (control group) iv over 10 min before anesthetic induction. After tracheal intubation with propofol 2 mg/kg, cisatracurium 0.15 mg/kg iv, anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, O 2 50%, N 2O 50% around a BIS value of 40.

          Results

          After study drug infusion, BIS of Dex group was lower than that of control group (93.9 ± 3.1 vs 51.5 ± 5.2, P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) after intubation were increased in control group, but did not change in Dex group. During maintenance, there was no difference in MAP between groups, but HR of Dex group was lower compared to that of control group. End-tidal concentration (2.0 ± 0.5 vol% vs 1.4 ± 0.3 vol%, P < 0.05) and total cumulative consumption of sevoflurane (34.6 ± 3.8 ml vs 26.5 ± 5.3 ml, P < 0.05) were lower in Dex group than in control group. Recovery profiles, modified Aldrete score, postoperative nausea vomiting, and visual analogue pain score were not significantly different between groups.

          Conclusions

          Preanesthetic dexmetomidine 1 µg/kg single infusion is a simple, easy, and economic general anesthetic adjuvant that maintains stable hemodynamics and decrease anesthetic consumption without the change of recovery profiles.

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          Most cited references 28

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          The effects of increasing plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans.

          This study determined the responses to increasing plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans. Ten healthy men (20-27 yr) provided informed consent and were monitored (underwent electrocardiography, measured arterial, central venous [CVP] and pulmonary artery [PAP] pressures, cardiac output, oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide [ETCO2], respiration, blood gas, and catecholamines). Hemodynamic measurements, blood sampling, and psychometric, cold pressor, and baroreflex tests were performed at rest and during sequential 40-min intravenous target infusions of dexmedetomidine (0.5, 0.8, 1.2, 2.0, 3.2, 5.0, and 8.0 ng/ml; baroreflex testing only at 0.5 and 0.8 ng/ml). The initial dose of dexmedetomidine decreased catecholamines 45-76% and eliminated the norepinephrine increase that was seen during the cold pressor test. Catecholamine suppression persisted in subsequent infusions. The first two doses of dexmedetomidine increased sedation 38 and 65%, and lowered mean arterial pressure by 13%, but did not change central venous pressure or pulmonary artery pressure. Subsequent higher doses increased sedation, all pressures, and calculated vascular resistance, and resulted in significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Recall and recognition decreased at a dose of more than 0.7 ng/ml. The pain rating and mean arterial pressure increase to cold pressor test progressively diminished as the dexmedetomidine dose increased. The baroreflex heart rate slowing as a result of phenylephrine challenge was potentiated at both doses of dexmedetomidine. Respiratory variables were minimally changed during infusions, whereas acid-base was unchanged. Increasing concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans resulted in progressive increases in sedation and analgesia, decreases in heart rate, cardiac output, and memory. A biphasic (low, then high) dose-response relation for mean arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and vascular resistances, and an attenuation of the cold pressor response also were observed.
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            Sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties of small-dose dexmedetomidine infusions.

            This research determined the safety and efficacy of two small-dose infusions of dexmedetomidine by evaluating sedation, analgesia, cognition, and cardiorespiratory function. Seven healthy young volunteers provided informed consent and participated on three occasions with random assignment to drug or placebo. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, ETCO(2), O(2) saturation, and processed electroencephalogram (bispectral analysis) were monitored. Baseline hemodynamic measurements were acquired, and psychometric tests were performed (visual analog scale for sedation; observer's assessment of alertness/sedation scale; digit symbol substitution test; and memory). The pain from a 1-min cold pressor test was quantified with a visual analog scale. After a 10-min initial dose of saline or 6 microg. kg(-1). h(-1) dexmedetomidine, volunteers received 50-min IV infusions of saline, or 0.2 or 0.6 microg. kg(-1). h(-1) dexmedetomidine. Measurements were repeated at the end of infusion and during recovery. The two dexmedetomidine infusions resulted in similar and significant sedation (30%-60%), impairment of memory (approximately 50%), and psychomotor performance (28%-41%). Hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, ETCO(2), and respiratory rate were well preserved throughout the infusion and recovery periods. Pain to the cold pressor test was reduced by 30% during dexmedetomidine infusion. Small-dose dexmedetomidine provided sedation, analgesia, and memory and cognitive impairment. These properties might prove useful in a postoperative or intensive care unit setting. IMPLICATIPNS: The alpha(2) agonist, dexmedetomidine, has sedation and analgesic properties. This study quantified these effects, as well as cardiorespiratory, memory and psychomotor effects, in healthy volunteers. Dexmedetomidine infusions resulted in reversible sedation, mild analgesia, and memory impairment without cardiorespiratory compromise.
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              Dexmedetomidine: a review of clinical applications.

              The present review serves as an overview update in the diverse uses of the sedative dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine is a selective alpha2 adrenoreceptor agonist that has been described as a useful, safe adjunct in many clinical applications. This paper reviews current clinical uses, mechanism of action, and side effects of dexmedetomidine. The current uses reviewed include sedation in the ICU (adult and pediatric), neurosurgery, pediatric procedural sedation, awake fiber-optic intubation, cardiac surgery, and bariatric surgery. Dexmedetomidine is a useful medication with many clinical applications. The medication has shown efficacy in decreasing the need for opioids, benzodiazepines, propofol, and other sedative medications. Short-term sedation has been shown to be safe in studies, although hypotension and bradycardia are the most significant side effects. Dexmedetomidine has been used effectively for sedation during pediatric procedures and in the ICU. In order to reduce sympathetic tone during cardiac surgery, a low-dose dexmedetomidine infusion has been utilized. The bariatric surgery population has also been studied with dexmedetomidine because of its adequate sedation and less prevalent respiratory depression when compared with opioid administration. Dexmedetomidine is emerging as an effective therapeutic agent in the management of a wide range of clinical conditions with an efficacious, safe profile.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Anesthesiol
                Korean J Anesthesiol
                KJAE
                Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
                The Korean Society of Anesthesiologists
                2005-6419
                2005-7563
                August 2013
                27 August 2013
                : 65
                : 2
                : 114-120
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Hye Won Shin, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Anam Hospital, 126-1, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705, Korea. Tel: 82-2-920-5632, Fax: 82-2-928-2275, hwshin99@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.4097/kjae.2013.65.2.114
                3766775
                24023992
                Copyright © the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists, 2013

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Clinical Research Article

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