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      Feasibility and Outcomes of Fetoscopic Tracheal Occlusion for Severe Left Diaphragmatic Hernia :

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          Severe diaphragmatic hernia treated by fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion.

          To examine operative and perinatal aspects of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). This was a multicenter study of singleton pregnancies with CDH treated by FETO. The entry criteria for FETO were severe CDH on the basis of sonographic evidence of intrathoracic herniation of the liver and low lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) defined as the observed to the expected normal mean for gestation (o/e LHR) equivalent to an LHR of 1 or less. FETO was carried out in 210 cases, including 175 cases with left-sided, 34 right-sided and one with bilateral CDH. In 188 cases the CDH was isolated and in 22 there was an associated defect. FETO was performed at a median gestational age of 27.1 (range, 23.0-33.3) weeks. The first eight cases were done under general anesthesia, but subsequently either regional or local anesthesia was used. The median duration of FETO was 10 (range, 3-93) min. Successful placement of the balloon at the first procedure was achieved in 203 (96.7%) cases. Spontaneous preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurred in 99 (47.1%) cases at 3-83 (median, 30) days after FETO and within 3 weeks of the procedure in 35 (16.7%) cases. Removal of the balloon was prenatal either by fetoscopy or ultrasound-guided puncture, intrapartum by ex-utero intrapartum treatment, or postnatal either by tracheoscopy or percutaneous puncture. Delivery was at 25.7-41.0 (median, 35.3) weeks and before 34 weeks in 65 (30.9%) cases. In 204 (97.1%) cases the babies were live born and 98 (48.0%) were discharged from the hospital alive. There were 10 deaths directly related to difficulties with removal of the balloon. Significant prediction of survival was provided by the o/e LHR and gestational age at delivery. On the basis of the relationship between survival and o/e LHR in expectantly managed fetuses with CDH, as reported in the antenatal CDH registry, we estimated that in fetuses with left CDH treated with FETO the survival rate increased from 24.1% to 49.1%, and in right CDH survival increased from 0% to 35.3% (P < 0.001). FETO in severe CDH is associated with a high incidence of PPROM and preterm delivery but a substantial improvement in survival.
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            Fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia: evolution of a technique and preliminary results.

             K Nicolaides,  E Gratacós,   (2004)
            Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with liver herniation and a lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) < 1 [corrected] is associated with a high rate of neonatal death due to pulmonary hypoplasia. We report the development of a minimally invasive and reversible fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) with a balloon, carried out in 21 consecutive fetuses with severe CDH. Endotracheal placement of the balloon was successfully performed in all 21 cases and the mean duration of the operation was 20 (range, 5-54) min. The median gestation at FETO was 26 (range, 25-33) weeks. There were no maternal complications such as hemorrhage, placental abruption or pulmonary edema. In 11 (52.4%) patients there was postoperative prelabor amniorrhexis, which occurred within 2 weeks in five patients and after 2 weeks in six patients. Ultrasound scans after FETO demonstrated an increase in the echogenicity of the lungs within 48 h and improvement in the LHR from a median 0.7 (range, 0.4-0.9) before FETO to 1.8 (range, 1.1-2.9) within 2 weeks following surgery. The median gestation at delivery was 34 (range, 27-38) weeks and in 17 (77.3%) patients delivery occurred after 32 weeks. Nine babies died in the neonatal period due to complications from pulmonary hypoplasia. Surgical repair of the diaphragmatic hernia was carried out in 12 babies and in all but one the defect was extensive and required the insertion of a patch. Ten of these babies survived, and at the time of writing were aged 6-25 (median, 18) months and were developing normally. Survival was 30% in the first group of 10 fetuses and 63.6% in the second group of 11 fetuses. The total number of cases was too small for definite conclusions to be drawn as to the causes of this apparent improvement in survival. Nevertheless, improved survival coincided with a shift in the timing of FETO from the third to the second trimester, the administration of epidural rather than general anesthesia, reduced incidence of postoperative amniorrhexis and a change in the policy on the timing of removal of the balloon from the intrapartum to the prenatal period. During the same period of study there were 17 cases examined in the participating centers that met the criteria for FETO but which declined prenatal therapy. In all cases there was isolated left-sided CDH with liver in the thorax and LHR of 0.4-0.9 (mean, 0.7). In five cases the parents elected to terminate the pregnancy. In the 12 cases with expectant management all babies were liveborn but 11 died in the neonatal period due to pulmonary hypoplasia and only one (8.3%) survived. Severe CDH can be successfully treated with FETO, which is minimally invasive and may improve postnatal survival. Copyright 2004 ISUOG
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              A randomized controlled trial of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion versus postnatal management of severe isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

              Severe pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary arterial hypertension are associated with reduced survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We aimed to determine whether fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) improves survival in cases of severe isolated CDH. Between May 2008 and July 2010, patients whose fetuses had severe isolated CDH (lung-to-head ratio < 1.0, liver herniation into the thoracic cavity and no other detectable anomalies) were assigned randomly to FETO or to no fetal intervention (controls). FETO was performed under maternal epidural anesthesia supplemented with fetal intramuscular anesthesia. Tracheal balloon placement was achieved with ultrasound guidance and fetoscopy between 26 and 30 weeks of gestation. All cases that underwent FETO were delivered by the EXIT procedure. Postnatal therapy was the same for both treated fetuses and controls. The primary outcome was survival to 6 months of age. Other maternal and neonatal outcomes were also evaluated. Twenty patients were enrolled randomly to FETO and 21 patients to standard postnatal management. The mean gestational age at randomization was similar in both groups (P = 0.83). Delivery occurred at 35.6 ± 2.4 weeks in the FETO group and at 37.4 ± 1.9 weeks in the controls (P < 0.01). In the intention-to-treat analysis, 10/20 (50.0%) infants in the FETO group survived, while 1/21 (4.8%) controls survived (relative risk (RR), 10.5 (95% CI, 1.5-74.7), P < 0.01). In the received-treatment analysis, 10/19 (52.6%) infants in the FETO group and 1/19 (5.3%) controls survived (RR, 10.0 (95% CI, 1.4-70.6) P < 0.01). FETO improves neonatal survival in cases with isolated severe CDH. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0029-7844
                2017
                January 2017
                : 129
                : 1
                : 20-29
                Article
                10.1097/AOG.0000000000001749
                © 2017

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