Blog
About

5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Recent advancements in the use of exosomes as drug delivery systems

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are the substances that are released by most types of cells and have an important role in cell to cell communication. Among the most highly researched EVs are exosome. Recent studies show that exosomes derived from cells have different roles and targets. Many studies show that exosome can efficiently deliver many different kinds of cargo to the target cell. Therefore, they are often used to deliver therapeutic cargo for treatment. The exosomes that have been used include both natural ones and those that have been modified with other substances to increase the delivery ability. This article provides a review of both exosomes derived from various cells and modified exosome and their ability in delivering the many kinds of cargo to the target cell.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 81

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for biomedical imaging and drug delivery.

          Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of hybrid materials formed by the self-assembly of polydentate bridging ligands and metal-connecting points, have been studied for a variety of applications. Recently, these materials have been scaled down to nanometer sizes, and this Account details the development of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) for biomedical applications. NMOFs possess several potential advantages over conventional nanomedicines such as their structural and chemical diversity, their high loading capacity, and their intrinsic biodegradability. Under relatively mild conditions, NMOFs can be obtained as either crystalline or amorphous materials. The particle composition, size, and morphology can be easily tuned to optimize the final particle properties. Researchers have employed two general strategies to deliver active agents using NMOFs: by incorporating active agents into the frameworks or by loading active agents into the pores and channels of the NMOFs. The modification of NMOF surfaces with either silica coatings or organic polymers improves NMOF stability, fine-tunes their properties, and imparts additional functionality. Preliminary biomedical applications of NMOFs have focused on their use as delivery vehicles for imaging contrast agents and molecular therapeutics. Because NMOFs can carry large amounts of paramagnetic metal ions, they have been extensively explored as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Both Gd(3+)- and Mn(2+)-containing NMOFs have shown excellent efficacy as T(1)-weighted contrast agents with large per metal- and per particle-based MR relaxivities. Fe(3+)-containing NMOFs have demonstrated excellent T(2)-weighted contrast enhancement. Upon intravenous injection of iron carboxylate NMOFs in Wistar rats, researchers observed negative signal enhancement in the liver and spleen, which dissipated over time, indicating the degradation and clearance of the NMOF. Through the incorporation of luminescent or high Z element building blocks, NMOFs have also served as viable contrast agents for optical imaging or X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Incorporation of membrane impermeable dyes into NMOFs allowed for their uptake by cancer cells and for their controlled release as the framework decomposed. NMOFs have been used to deliver anticancer drugs and other chemotherapeutics. Cisplatin prodrugs were incorporated within NMOFs at exceptionally high levels, either through use of the prodrug as the building block or through attachment of the prodrug onto the framework after synthesis. These NMOFs were encapsulated within a silica shell and targeted to cancer cells. In vitro assays revealed that the targeted NMOFs possessed similar efficacy to cisplatin, while the nontargeted NMOFs were less active. Several different therapeutic molecules were loaded within porous iron-carboxylate NMOFs at unprecedented levels. The NMOF showed sustained drug release with no burst effect, and in vitro assays revealed that the nanoencapsulated drug possessed similar efficacy to the free drug. Although still at a very early stage of development, NMOFs have already shown great promise as a novel platform for nanomedicine. The compositional tunability and mild synthetic conditions used to produce NMOFs should allow for the incorporation of other imaging and therapeutic agents and their effective delivery to targeted cells in vivo.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A doxorubicin delivery platform using engineered natural membrane vesicle exosomes for targeted tumor therapy.

            Targeted drug delivery vehicles with low immunogenicity and toxicity are needed for cancer therapy. Here we show that exosomes, endogenous nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types, can deliver chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin (Dox) to tumor tissue in BALB/c nude mice. To reduce immunogenicity and toxicity, mouse immature dendritic cells (imDCs) were used for exosome production. Tumor targeting was facilitated by engineering the imDCs to express a well-characterized exosomal membrane protein (Lamp2b) fused to αv integrin-specific iRGD peptide (CRGDKGPDC). Purified exosomes from imDCs were loaded with Dox via electroporation, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 20%. iRGD exosomes showed highly efficient targeting and Dox delivery to αv integrin-positive breast cancer cells in vitro as demonstrated by confocal imaging and flow cytometry. Intravenously injected targeted exosomes delivered Dox specifically to tumor tissues, leading to inhibition of tumor growth without overt toxicity. Our results suggest that exosomes modified by targeting ligands can be used therapeutically for the delivery of Dox to tumors, thus having great potential value for clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The biology and function of exosomes in cancer.

               Raghu Kalluri (2016)
              Humans circulate quadrillions of exosomes at all times. Exosomes are a class of extracellular vesicles released by all cells, with a size range of 40-150 nm and a lipid bilayer membrane. Exosomes contain DNA, RNA, and proteins. Exosomes likely remove excess and/or unnecessary constituents from the cells, functioning like garbage bags, although their precise physiological role remains unknown. Additionally, exosomes may mediate specific cell-to-cell communication and activate signaling pathways in cells they fuse or interact with. Exosomes are detected in the tumor microenvironment, and emerging evidence suggests that they play a role in facilitating tumorigenesis by regulating angiogenesis, immunity, and metastasis. Circulating exosomes can be used as liquid biopsies and noninvasive biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer patients.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0154 0904, GRID grid.190737.b, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, College of Bioengineering, , Chongqing University, ; No 174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400044 People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000121885934, GRID grid.5335.0, Nanoscience Centre, Department of Engineering, , University of Cambridge, ; JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FF UK
                Contributors
                fredjie91@gmail.com
                power4342@cqu.edu.cn
                tieying_yin@cqu.edu.cn
                wangnan@gmail.com
                cd229@cam.ac.uk
                +86 158 0305 5646 , yazhou_wang@cqu.edu.cn
                wanggx@cqu.edu.cn
                Journal
                J Nanobiotechnology
                J Nanobiotechnology
                Journal of Nanobiotechnology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1477-3155
                16 October 2018
                16 October 2018
                2018
                : 16
                30326899 6190562 403 10.1186/s12951-018-0403-9
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Biotechnology

                extracellular vesicles, exosome, delivery properties

                Comments

                Comment on this article