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Criteria for age estimation in living individuals.

International Journal of Legal Medicine

Sexual Development, Reference Values, Radiography, Dental, Quality Control, Humans, radiography, Hand, standards, legislation & jurisprudence, Forensic Medicine, Clavicle, Anthropometry, Age Determination by Teeth, Age Determination by Skeleton

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      This paper presents updated recommendations of the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics for age estimations in living individuals in criminal proceedings. In order to increase the diagnostic accuracy and to improve the identification of age-relevant developmental disorders, a physical examination, an X-ray examination of the left hand, as well as a dental examination including the determination of the dental status and an X-ray of the dentition should be performed in each case. If the skeletal development of the hand is completed, an additional radiological examination of the clavicles should be carried out. Minimum requirements for reference studies are defined and recommendable studies are listed. Instructions for the examination and the preparation of expert reports are presented. The committee of the study group organizes annual proficiency tests for quality assurance.

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