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      Homocysteine Levels Are Associated with Increased Risk of Congestive Heart Failure in Patients with and without Coronary Artery Disease

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          Abstract

          Background: Increased homocysteine (HCY) is associated with increased risk of vascular disease. Whether HCY affects development of congestive heart failure (CHF) independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncertain. We evaluated whether increased HCY predicts low ejection fraction or clinical CHF. Methods: Patients (n = 2,842) undergoing coronary angiography had HCY measured between 1994 and 1999 and were prospectively studied. Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) was defined as ejection fraction ≤40%. Multivariable regressions assessed predictive strength of HCY for LVD or LVD/CHF. Results: The average age was 64 ± 12 years; 69% were men, and 74% had CAD. LVD was present in 12% and the combination of either LVD or clinical CHF was present in 21.9%. Quartiles of HCY were: ≤10.5 (Q1), 10.5–13.2 (Q2), 13.3–17.0 (Q3) and ≧17.1 µmol/l (Q4). LVD and LVD/CHF were more prevalent in Q3 (15, 25%) and Q4 (15, 27%) than in Q1 HCY (8.4, 18%; p < 0.001 vs. Q4). After adjustment, Q3 and Q4 HCY independently predicted LVD (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5, p = 0.004; OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.6, p = 0.002) or LVD/CHF (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.04–1.8, p = 0.03; OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.2, p < 0.001). Findings did not differ by disease etiology: for Q4 among non-CAD patients, OR = 1.7 for LVD and OR = 1.7 for LVD/CHF. Further, there was no interaction of results with gender. Conclusion: High HCY levels (Q3/4 ≧13.3 µmol/l) are associated with LVD and combined endpoint of LVD/clinical CHF. This relationship is independent of CHF etiology and gender. Further research is indicated to distinguish between a causal or noncausal mechanism for this association.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease.

          An elevated level of total homocysteine (tHcy) in blood, denoted hyperhomocysteinemia, is emerging as a prevalent and strong risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease in the coronary, cerebral, and peripheral vessels, and for arterial and venous thromboembolism. The basis for these conclusions is data from about 80 clinical and epidemiological studies including more than 10,000 patients. Elevated tHcy confers a graded risk with no threshold, is independent of but may enhance the effect of the conventional risk factors, and seems to be a particularly strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Hyperhomocysteinemia is attributed to commonly occurring genetic and acquired factors including deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12. Supplementation with B-vitamins, in particular with folic acid, is an efficient, safe, and inexpensive means to reduce an elevated tHcy level. Studies are now in progress to establish whether such therapy will reduce cardiovascular risk.
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            Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.

            Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are a risk factor for coronary heart disease, but the prognostic value of homocysteine levels in patients with established coronary artery disease has not been defined. We prospectively investigated the relation between plasma total homocysteine levels and mortality among 587 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease. At the time of angiography in 1991 or 1992, risk factors for coronary disease, including homocysteine levels, were evaluated. The majority of the patients subsequently underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (318 patients) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (120 patients); the remaining 149 were treated medically. After a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 64 patients (10.9 percent) had died. We found a strong, graded relation between plasma homocysteine levels and overall mortality. After four years, 3.8 percent of patients with homocysteine levels below 9 micromol per liter had died, as compared with 24.7 percent of those with homocysteine levels of 15 micromol per liter or higher. Homocysteine levels were only weakly related to the extent of coronary artery disease but were strongly related to the history with respect to myocardial infarction, the left ventricular ejection fraction, and the serum creatinine level. The relation of homocysteine levels to mortality remained strong after adjustment for these and other potential confounders. In an analysis in which the patients with homocysteine levels below 9 micromol per liter were used as the reference group, the mortality ratios were 1.9 for patients with homocysteine levels of 9.0 to 14.9 micromol per liter, 2.8 for those with levels of 15.0 to 19.9 micromol per liter, and 4.5 for those with levels of 20.0 micromol per liter or higher (P for trend=0.02). When death due to cardiovascular disease (which occurred in 50 patients) was used as the end point in the analysis, the relation between homocysteine levels and mortality was slightly strengthened. Plasma total homocysteine levels are a strong predictor of mortality in patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease.
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              The metabolism of homocysteine: pathways and regulation.

              Two pathways, the methionine cycle and transsulfuration, account for virtually all methionine metabolism in mammals. Every tissue possesses the methionine cycle. Therefore, each can synthesize AdoMet, employ it for transmethylation, hydrolyze AdoHcy, and remethylate homocysteine. Transsulfuration, which occurs only in liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas, is the means for catabolizing homocysteine. Liver has a unique isoenzyme of MAT that allows the utilization of excess methionine for the continued synthesis of AdoMet. Metabolic regulation is based on the distribution of available homocysteine between remethylation and conversion to cystathionine. The tissue content of the enzymes and their inherent kinetic properties provide the basis for the regulatory mechanism. The effector properties of the metabolites AdoMet, AdoHcy and methylTHF are of particular relevance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                March 2007
                28 August 2006
                : 107
                : 3
                : 178-184
                Affiliations
                aLDS Hospital, bUniversity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
                Article
                95344 Cardiology 2007;107:178–184
                10.1159/000095344
                16940722
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 59, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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