Heidi T. May a , Rami Alharethi b , Jeffrey L. Anderson a, b , Joseph B. Muhlestein a, b , Sandra P. Reyna b , Tami L. Bair a , Benjamin D. Horne a , Abdallah G. Kfoury a, b , John F. Carlquist a, b , Dale G. Renlund a, b
28 August 2006
Background: Increased homocysteine (HCY) is associated with increased risk of vascular disease. Whether HCY affects development of congestive heart failure (CHF) independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncertain. We evaluated whether increased HCY predicts low ejection fraction or clinical CHF. Methods: Patients (n = 2,842) undergoing coronary angiography had HCY measured between 1994 and 1999 and were prospectively studied. Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) was defined as ejection fraction ≤40%. Multivariable regressions assessed predictive strength of HCY for LVD or LVD/CHF. Results: The average age was 64 ± 12 years; 69% were men, and 74% had CAD. LVD was present in 12% and the combination of either LVD or clinical CHF was present in 21.9%. Quartiles of HCY were: ≤10.5 (Q1), 10.5–13.2 (Q2), 13.3–17.0 (Q3) and ≧17.1 µmol/l (Q4). LVD and LVD/CHF were more prevalent in Q3 (15, 25%) and Q4 (15, 27%) than in Q1 HCY (8.4, 18%; p < 0.001 vs. Q4). After adjustment, Q3 and Q4 HCY independently predicted LVD (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5, p = 0.004; OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.6, p = 0.002) or LVD/CHF (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.04–1.8, p = 0.03; OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.2, p < 0.001). Findings did not differ by disease etiology: for Q4 among non-CAD patients, OR = 1.7 for LVD and OR = 1.7 for LVD/CHF. Further, there was no interaction of results with gender. Conclusion: High HCY levels (Q3/4 ≧13.3 µmol/l) are associated with LVD and combined endpoint of LVD/clinical CHF. This relationship is independent of CHF etiology and gender. Further research is indicated to distinguish between a causal or noncausal mechanism for this association.