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      Transvascular Passage of Macromolecules into the Peritoneal Cavity of Normo- and Hypothermic Rats in vivo: Active or Passive Transport?


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          During the last decades there has been a debate regarding whether transvascular protein transport is an active (transcytosis) or a passive (porous) process. To separate cooling-sensitive transcytosis from passive transport processes between blood and peritoneal fluid, we induced hypothermia in rats in vivo, reducing their body temperature to 19°C. Control rats were kept at 37°C. Either human albumin, or IgG, or IgM, or LDL, radiolabeled with <sup>125</sup>I, was given intra-arterially together with <sup>51</sup>Cr-EDTA. During tracer administration, a 2-hour peritoneal dialysis dwell was performed. Clearance of the tracers to dialysate, and the permeability-surface area coefficient (PS) for <sup>51</sup>Cr-EDTA and glucose were assessed. During cooling, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was reduced to 40% of control and plasma viscosity increased by 48.5%, while peritoneal blood flow was reduced to 10%. At 19°C, clearance of albumin to dialysate fell from 9.30 ± 1.62 (SEM) to 3.13 ± 0.28 µl/min (p < 0.05), clearance of IgG from 6.33 ± 0.42 to 2.54 ± 0.12 µl/min (p < 0.05), clearance of IgM from 3.65 ± 0.33 to 1.10 ± 0.12 µl/min (p < 0.05), and clearance of LDL from 3.54 ± 0.20 to 0.73 ± 0.06 µl/min (p < 0.05). The fall in PS for <sup>51</sup>Cr-EDTA was from 0.320 ± 0.01 to 0.075 ± 0.003 ml/min (p < 0.05), and that for glucose from 0.438 ± 0.02 to 0.105 ± 0.01 ml/min (p < 0.05). Tissue cooling reduced large solute transport largely in proportion to the cooling-induced reductions of MAP (to 40%), and the concomitant increase in viscosity (to 67%), i.e. to ≈20–30% (0.40 × 0.67) of control, though LDL clearance was reduced further. The fall in small solute PS, in excess of the viscosity effect, mirrored the fall in peritoneal blood flow occurring during hypothermia. In conclusion, the good correlation of predicted to calculated changes suggests that the overall transendothelial macromolecular passage in vivo occurs passively, and not due to active processes.

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          Filipin-sensitive caveolae-mediated transport in endothelium: reduced transcytosis, scavenger endocytosis, and capillary permeability of select macromolecules

          Caveolae or noncoated plasmalemmal vesicles found in a variety of cells have been implicated in a number of important cellular functions including endocytosis, transcytosis, and potocytosis. Their function in transport across endothelium has been especially controversial, at least in part because there has not been any way to selectively inhibit this putative pathway. We now show that the ability of sterol binding agents such as filipin to disassemble endothelial noncoated but not coated plasmalemmal vesicles selectively inhibits caveolae-mediated intracellular and transcellular transport of select macromolecules in endothelium. Filipin significantly reduces the transcellular transport of insulin and albumin across cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Rat lung microvascular permeability to albumin in situ is significantly decreased after filipin perfusion. Conversely, paracellular transport of the small solute inulin is not inhibited in vitro or in situ. In addition, we show that caveolae mediate the scavenger endocytosis of conformationally modified albumins for delivery to endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. This intracellular transport is inhibited by filipin both in vitro and in situ. Other sterol binding agents including nystatin and digitonin also inhibit this degradative process. Conversely, the endocytosis and degradation of activated alpha 2- macroglobulin, a known ligand of the clathrin-dependent pathway, is not affected. Interestingly, filipin appears to inhibit insulin uptake by endothelium for transcytosis, a caveolae-mediated process, but not endocytosis for degradation, apparently mediated by the clathrin-coated pathway. Such selective inhibition of caveolae not only provides critical evidence for the role of caveolae in the intracellular and transcellular transport of select macromolecules in endothelium but also may be useful for distinguishing transport mediated by coated versus noncoated vesicles.
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            Transendothelial Transport: The Vesicle Controversy

            The relative contribution of transcytosis vs. large pore transport to the passage of macromolecules across microvascular endothelia has been a controversial issue for nearly half a century. To separate transcytosis from ‘porous’ transport, the transcytosis inhibitors N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and filipin have been tested in in situ or ex vivo perfused organs with highly conflicting results. In continually weighed isolated perfused organs, where measurements of pre- and post-capillary resistances, capillary pressure and capillary filtration coefficients can be repeatedly performed, high doses of NEM and filipin increased the bulk transport of macromolecules from blood to tissue, despite producing vasoconstriction. By contrast, in in situ perfused organs, marked reductions in the tissue uptake of albumin tracer have been observed after NEM and filipin. When tissue cooling has been employed as a means of inhibiting (active) transcytosis, results have invariably shown a low cooling sensitivity of albumin transport, compatible with passive transendothelial passage of albumin. This observation is further strengthened by the commonly observed dependence of albumin transport upon the capillary pressure and the rate of transcapillary convection. For low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a cooling-sensitive, non-selective transport component has been discovered, which may be represented by filtration through paracellular gaps, lateral diffusion through transendothelial channels formed by fused vesicles, or by transcytosis. From a physiological standpoint there is little evidence supporting active transendothelial transport of most plasma macromolecules. This seems to be supported by studies on caveolin-1-deficient mice lacking plasmalemmal vesicles (caveolae), in which there are no obvious abnormalities in the transendothelial transport of albumin, immunoglobulins or lipoproteins. Nevertheless, specific transport in peripheral capillaries of several hormones and other specific substances, similar to that existing across the blood-brain barrier, still remains as a possibility.
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              The Determination of Lipids and Proteins in Suction Blister Fluid


                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                April 2004
                21 April 2004
                : 41
                : 2
                : 123-130
                Department of Nephrology and Department of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                77131 J Vasc Res 2004;41:123–130
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 38, Pages: 8
                Research Paper


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