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      MR scan evaluation of pelvic organ prolapse mesh complications and agreement with intra-operative findings

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          An increasing number of women are presenting with symptoms after the placement of mesh implants for prolapse which may be attributable to a mesh implant complication. MRI imaging can be used to evaluate abdominally placed mesh but there is no published research evaluating the use of MRI in this group of women. The objective of our study was to report our experience as a tertiary centre in evaluating abdominal mesh with MR imaging and the agreement of MR reports with surgical findings.

          Study design

          A retrospective observational cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) of all women referred to our tertiary unit who underwent an MR scan for investigation of symptoms of mesh complication following an abdominally placed mesh implant between June 2006 and September 2018 was performed. The reports of MR images were compared with the findings at surgery.


          MR scan was performed in 87 with suspected mesh complications. MR scan detected mesh failure in 42.1% of women (37/87), infection in 12.6% (11/87), compression in 2.3% (2/87), exposure in 12.6% (11/88), bowel extrusion in 2.3% (2/87) and inflammation in 11.5% (10/87). Agreement between MR scan report and surgical diagnosis was almost perfect for mesh failure, infection and compression, whilst agreement was only moderate for mesh erosion and signs of inflammation (failure κ = 0.97, infection κ = 0.94, compression κ = 1.0, exposure κ = 0.58 and inflammation κ = 0.24).


          These data provide information on the role of MR imaging in the investigation of women presenting with suspected intra-abdominal POP mesh complications including recurrence.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Epidemiology and outcome assessment of pelvic organ prolapse.

          The aim was to determine the incidence and prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse surgery and describe how outcomes are reported. Every 4 years and as part of the Fifth International Collaboration on Incontinence we reviewed the English-language scientific literature after searching PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library and Cochrane database of systematic reviews, published up to January 2012. Publications were classified as level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCT] or systematic reviews, level 2 (poor quality RCT, prospective cohort studies), level 3 (case series or retrospective studies) and level 4 (case reports). The highest level of evidence was utilised by the committee to make evidence-based recommendations based upon the Oxford grading system. A grade A recommendation usually depends on consistent level 1 evidence. A grade B recommendation usually depends on consistent level 2 and/or 3 studies, or "majority evidence" from RCTs. A grade C recommendation usually depends on level 4 studies or "majority evidence" from level 2/3 studies or Delphi processed expert opinion. A grade D "no recommendation possible" would be used where the evidence is inadequate or conflicting and when expert opinion is delivered without a formal analytical process, such as by Delphi . Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) when defined by symptoms has a prevalence of 3-6% and up to 50% when based upon vaginal examination. Surgery for prolapse is performed twice as commonly as continence surgery and prevalence varies widely from 6 to 18%. The incidence of POP surgery ranges from 1.5 to 1.8 per 1,000 women years and peaks in women aged 60-69. When reporting outcomes of the surgical management of prolapse, authors should include a variety of standardised anatomical and functional outcomes. Anatomical outcomes reported should include all POP-Q points and staging, utilising a traditional definition of success with the hymen as the threshold for success. Assessment should be prospective and assessors blinded as to the surgical intervention performed if possible and without any conflict of interest related to the assessment undertaken (grade C). Subjective success postoperatively should be defined as the absence of a vaginal bulge (grade C). Functional outcomes are best reported using valid, reliable and responsive symptom questionnaires and condition-specific HRQOL instruments (grade C). Sexual function is best reported utilising validated condition-specific HRQOL that assess sexual function or validated sexual function questionnaires such as the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) or the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The sexual activity status of all study participants should be reported pre- and postoperatively under the following categories: sexually active without pain, sexually active with pain or not sexually active (grade C). Prolapse surgery should be defined as primary surgery, and repeat surgery sub-classified as primary surgery different site, repeat surgery, complications related to surgery and surgery for non-prolapse-related conditions (grade C). Significant variation exists in the prevalence and incidence of pelvic organ prolapse surgery and how the outcomes are reported. Much of the variation may be improved by standardisation of definitions and outcomes of reporting on pelvic organ prolapse surgery.
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            Long term review of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy.

            Assessment of long term outcome following laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Retrospective follow up study using standardised examination with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system (POP-Q) and questionnaires. A tertiary urogynaecology unit in the North West of England. One hundred and forty consecutive cases who had a laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy at St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, between 1993 and 1999. Women completed questionnaires and were examined in gynaecology clinic or sent postal questionnaires if unable to attend the clinic. Adequacy of vault support and recurrent vaginal prolapse assessed by POP-Q score. Assessment of prolapse, urinary and bowel symptoms and sexual function using questionnaires. One hundred and three women were contacted after a median of 66 months. Sixty-six women were examined and a further 37 women filled in questionnaires only. Recurrent vault prolapse occurred in 4 of the 66 women who were examined. Prolapse had recurred or persisted in 21 of 66 women, with equal numbers of anterior and posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Overall, 81/102 (79%) said that their symptoms of prolapse were 'cured' or 'improved'; 39/103 (38%) still had symptoms of prolapse. For every two women who were cured of their urinary or bowel symptoms, one woman developed worse symptoms. Among the 66 women available for examination laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy provided good long term support of the vault in 92%. Forty-two percent of these women had recurrent vaginal wall prolapse. Despite this, 79% of women felt that their symptoms of prolapse were cured or improved following surgery.
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              Functional cine MRI of the abdomen for the assessment of implanted synthetic mesh in patients after incisional hernia repair: initial results.

              The aim of our study was to develop a method that allows the visualisation and evaluation of implanted mesh in patients after incisional hernia repair with MRI. Furthermore, we assessed problems typically related with mesh implantation like adhesions and muscular atrophy. We enrolled 28 patients after incisional hernia repair. In 10 patients mesh implantation was done by laparoscopy (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene=ePTFE mesh) and in 18 by laparotomy (polypropylene mesh). Functional MRI was performed on a 1.5-T system in supine position. Sagittal and axial TrueFISP images of the entire abdomen were acquired with the patient repeatedly straining. Evaluation included: correct position and intact fixation of the mesh, furthermore visceral adhesions, recurrent hernia and atrophy of the rectus muscle. The ePTFE mesh was visible in all cases; the polypropylene mesh was not detectable. In seven of the ten ePTFE meshes the fixation was not intact; two recurrent hernias were detected. Twenty of 28 patients had intraabdominal adhesions. In 5 cases mobility of the abdominal wall was reduced, and 16 patients showed an atropy of the rectus muscle. Functional cine MRI is a suitable method for follow-up studies in patients after hernia repair. ePTFE meshes can be visualized directly, and typical complications like intestinal adhesions and abdominal wall dysmotility can be assessed reliably.

                Author and article information

                Int Urogynecol J
                Int Urogynecol J
                International Urogynecology Journal
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                18 December 2019
                18 December 2019
                : 31
                : 8
                : 1559-1566
                [1 ]GRID grid.462482.e, ISNI 0000 0004 0417 0074, The Warrell Unit, St Mary’s Hospital, , Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, ; Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL UK
                [2 ]GRID grid.414732.7, ISNI 0000 0004 0400 8034, Fairfield General Hospital, , Pennine Acute NHS Trust, ; Bury, BL9 7TD UK
                [3 ]GRID grid.462482.e, ISNI 0000 0004 0417 0074, Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, , Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, ; Manchester, M13 9WL UK
                [4 ]GRID grid.5379.8, ISNI 0000000121662407, Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical & Human Sciences, , University of Manchester, ; Manchester, UK
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

                Funded by: University of Manchester
                Original Article
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                © The International Urogynecological Association 2020

                Obstetrics & Gynecology

                mesh complications, sacrohysteropexy, sacrocolpopexy, mr scan


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