Blog
About

9
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Comparative genomics reveals Lysinibacillus sphaericus group comprises a novel species

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Early in the 1990s, it was recognized that Lysinibacillus sphaericus, one of the most popular and effective entomopathogenic bacteria, was a highly heterogeneous group. Many authors have even proposed it comprises more than one species, but the lack of phenotypic traits that guarantee an accurate differentiation has not allowed this issue to be clarified. Now that genomic technologies are rapidly advancing, it is possible to address the problem from a whole genome perspective, getting insights into the phylogeny, evolutive history and biology itself.

          Results

          The genome of the Colombian strain L. sphaericus OT4b.49 was sequenced, assembled and annotated, obtaining 3 chromosomal contigs and no evidence of plasmids. Using these sequences and the 13 other L. sphaericus genomes available on the NCBI database, we carried out comparative genomic analyses that included whole genome alignments, searching for mobile elements, phylogenomic metrics (TETRA, ANI and in-silico DDH) and pan-genome assessments. The results support the hypothesis about this species as a very heterogeneous group. The entomopathogenic lineage is actually a single and independent species with 3728 core genes and 2153 accessory genes, whereas each non-toxic strain seems to be a separate species, though without a clear circumscription. Toxin-encoding genes, binA, B and mtx1, 2, 3 could be acquired via horizontal gene transfer in a single evolutionary event. The non-toxic strain OT4b.31 is the most related with the type strain KCTC 3346.

          Conclusions

          The current L. sphaericus is actually a sensu lato due to a sub-estimation of diversity accrued using traditional non-genomics based classification strategies. The toxic lineage is the most studied with regards to its larvicidal activity, which is a greatly conserved trait among these strains and thus, their differentiating feature. Further studies are needed in order to establish a univocal classification of the non-toxic strains that, according to our results, seem to be a paraphyletic group.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-016-3056-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 41

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Toward an online repository of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for (meta)genomic annotation.

          The methodologies used to generate genome and metagenome annotations are diverse and vary between groups and laboratories. Descriptions of the annotation process are helpful in interpreting genome annotation data. Some groups have produced Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) that describe the annotation process, but standards are lacking for structure and content of these descriptions. In addition, there is no central repository to store and disseminate procedures and protocols for genome annotation. We highlight the importance of SOPs for genome annotation and endorse an online repository of SOPs.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The microbial pan-genome.

            A decade after the beginning of the genomic era, the question of how genomics can describe a bacterial species has not been fully addressed. Experimental data have shown that in some species new genes are discovered even after sequencing the genomes of several strains. Mathematical modeling predicts that new genes will be discovered even after sequencing hundreds of genomes per species. Therefore, a bacterial species can be described by its pan-genome, which is composed of a "core genome" containing genes present in all strains, and a "dispensable genome" containing genes present in two or more strains and genes unique to single strains. Given that the number of unique genes is vast, the pan-genome of a bacterial species might be orders of magnitude larger than any single genome.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Digital DNA-DNA hybridization for microbial species delineation by means of genome-to-genome sequence comparison

              The pragmatic species concept for Bacteria and Archaea is ultimately based on DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH). While enabling the taxonomist, in principle, to obtain an estimate of the overall similarity between the genomes of two strains, this technique is tedious and error-prone and cannot be used to incrementally build up a comparative database. Recent technological progress in the area of genome sequencing calls for bioinformatics methods to replace the wet-lab DDH by in-silico genome-to-genome comparison. Here we investigate state-of-the-art methods for inferring whole-genome distances in their ability to mimic DDH. Algorithms to efficiently determine high-scoring segment pairs or maximally unique matches perform well as a basis of inferring intergenomic distances. The examined distance functions, which are able to cope with heavily reduced genomes and repetitive sequence regions, outperform previously described ones regarding the correlation with and error ratios in emulating DDH. Simulation of incompletely sequenced genomes indicates that some distance formulas are very robust against missing fractions of genomic information. Digitally derived genome-to-genome distances show a better correlation with 16S rRNA gene sequence distances than DDH values. The future perspectives of genome-informed taxonomy are discussed, and the investigated methods are made available as a web service for genome-based species delineation.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (571) 3394949 , jdussan@uniandes.edu.co
                Journal
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2164
                5 September 2016
                5 September 2016
                2016
                : 17
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Centro de Investigaciones Microbiológicas (CIMIC), Universidad de los Andes, Cra 1 N. 18 A-12, Bogotá, Colombia
                Article
                3056
                10.1186/s12864-016-3056-9
                5011910
                27595771
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100006071, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes;
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Genetics

                larvicidal, lysinibacillus sphaericus, pan-genome, core-genome, phylogeny

                Comments

                Comment on this article