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      Sulphorhodamine-B-Labelled Albumin Uptake around the Ostium of the Renal Artery in Rabbits: Changes with Age


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          Because protein transport between blood and artery wall is important in atherogenesis, we have measured the uptake of fluorescently labelled albumin around the aorto-renal branch, an important site for lesions. Tracer concentrations in artery wall sections were quantified using digital fluorescence microscopy. Short-term experiments indicated endothelial permeability, while longer ones indicated the steady-state distribution of native proteins within the wall. In sexually immature rabbits (65–75 days), the permeability of the aorta was greater downstream of the renal ostium than upstream (p < 0.004). However, in mature rabbits (120–156 days), the permeability was greater, on average, at the upstream site compared to downstream. This change in pattern of uptake around the renal ostium with age appears to be due to increased uptake at the upstream site in mature animals, which was over fourfold greater than that measured at the equivalent site in immature animals (p < 0.01). In the renal artery itself, permeability was low and age independent. In mature animals, endothelial permeability did not correlate with steady-state wall concentrations, suggesting that the latter may be more dependent upon the rate of exit of protein and/or available space in the wall, rather than the rate of entry. The age-dependent changes in the spatial pattern of permeability correspond to the different distributions of spontaneous lipid accumulation in immature and mature vessels of both rabbits and humans, implying that permeability of the wall is important in atherogenesis.

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          Complexity of the simplest phylogenetic estimation problem.

           Zhiqiang Yang (2000)
          The maximum-likelihood (ML) solution to a simple phylogenetic estimation problem is obtained analytically The problem is estimation of the rooted tree for three species using binary characters with a symmetrical rate of substitution under the molecular clock. ML estimates of branch lengths and log-likelihood scores are obtained analytically for each of the three rooted binary trees. Estimation of the tree topology is equivalent to partitioning the sample space (space of possible data outcomes) into subspaces, within each of which one of the three binary trees is the ML tree. Distance-based least squares and parsimony-like methods produce essentially the same estimate of the tree topology, although differences exist among methods even under this simple model. This seems to be the simplest case, but has many of the conceptual and statistical complexities involved in phylogeny estimation. The solution to this real phylogeny estimation problem will be useful for studying the problem of significance evaluation.
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            A new probability mapping method to describe the development of atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits


              Author and article information

              J Vasc Res
              Journal of Vascular Research
              S. Karger AG
              April 2002
              10 May 2002
              : 39
              : 2
              : 104-113
              Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine, London, UK
              57759 J Vasc Res 2002;39:104–113
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 7, References: 24, Pages: 10
              Research Paper


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