There is an increase in mortality and morbidity in the health facilities due to nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant nosocomial bacteria; hence, there is a need for new antibacterial agents. Vernonia adoensis has been found to possess medicinal value. Plant phytochemicals may have antimicrobial activity against some resistant pathogens. The antibacterial efficacy of root extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated using the microbroth dilution method. All extracts from the roots had an inhibitory effect on the growth of both bacteria, with the most susceptible being P. aeruginosa. The most potent extract was the ethyl acetate extract which caused a percentage inhibition of 86% against P. aeruginosa. The toxicity of the extract was determined on sheep erythrocytes, and its effect on membrane integrity was determined by quantifying the amount of protein and nucleic acid leakage from the bacteria. The lowest concentration of extract used, which was 100 µg/ml, did not cause haemolysis of the erythrocytes, while at 1 mg/ml of the extract, 21% haemolysis was observed. The ethyl acetate extract caused membrane impairment of P. aeruginosa, leading to protein leakage. The effect of the extract on the biofilms of P. aeruginosa was determined in 96-microwell plates using crystal violet. In the concentration range of 0–100 µg/ml, the extract inhibited the formation of biofilms and decreased the attachment efficiency. The phytochemical constituents of the extract were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results of analysis showed the presence of 3-methylene-15-methoxy pentadecanol, 2-acetyl-6-(t-butyl)-4-methylphenol, 2-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoyl) cyclohexane-1,4-dione, E,E,Z-1,3,12-nonadecatriene-5,14-diol, and stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol. Fractionation and purification will elucidate the potential antimicrobial compounds which are present in the roots of V. adoensis.