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      Enhanced photocatalytic and electrochemical performance of TiO 2-Fe 2O 3 nanocomposite: Its applications in dye decolorization and as supercapacitors

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          Abstract

          This work reveals a green combustion route for the synthesis of TiO 2, Fe 2O 3 and TiO 2-Fe 2O 3 nanocomposites as photocatalysts for decolorization of Titan Yellow (TY) and Methyl Orange (MO) dyes at room temperature in aqueous solution concentration of 20 ppm under UV-light irradiation. We observed that the TiO 2-Fe 2O 3 nanocomposite shows superior photocatalytic activity for TY dye compared to pure TiO 2 and Fe 2O 3. Rate constant (k) values of TiO 2, Fe 2O 3 and TiO 2–Fe 2O 3 for TY and MO are 0.0194, 0.0159, 0.04396 and 0.00931, 0.00772 0.0119 kmin −1 respectively. The surface area and pore volume of TiO 2-Fe 2O 3 nanocomposite were found to be 71.56 m 2/g and 0.076 cm 3/g, respectively as revealed by BET studies. From the Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) plot, the mean pore diameter of TiO 2-Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles was found to be 2.43 nm. Further, the TiO 2-Fe 2O 3 nanocomposite showed good electrochemical behavior as an electrode material for supercapacitors when compared to pure TiO 2 and Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles resulted in stable electrochemical performance with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency at a scan rate of 10 mV/s for 1000 cycles. Interestingly, the novelty of this work is that the designed supercapacitors showed stable electrochemical performance even at 1000 th cycle, which might be useful for rechargeable supercapacitor applications. The electrochemical properties of the nanocomposites were compared by the data obtained by cyclic voltammograms, charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies. These results demonstrated that the TiO 2-Fe 2O 3 nanocomposite showed stable performance compared to TiO 2 and Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles at current density of 5 Ag −1.

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          Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanocomposites: A new and exciting generation of visible light driven photocatalysts for environmental pollution remediation

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            Review and perspectives on the use of magnetic nanophotocatalysts (MNPCs) in water treatment

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              Generation of oxygen vacancies in visible light activated one-dimensional iodine TiO2 photocatalysts

              Oxygen vacancies induced by multi-valences of iodine in two-step hydrothermal synthesized I/TiO 2 with enhanced visible photoactivity. A facile and efficient way of generating oxygen vacancies in visible light activated one-dimensional iodine doped TiO 2 photocatalysts was first reported in this work. A two-step hydrothermal synthesis was used to synthesize TiO 2 nanomaterials modified by iodic acid (HIO 3 ) as a dopant. Detailed analysis was conducted to illustrate the intrinsic doping/reaction mechanisms of iodic acid in the modification of the TiO 2 matrix. The phase and structure evolution were deduced from X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted to analyze the generation of oxygen vacancies and the formation of I–O–Ti bonds in the TiO 2 lattice. Multi-valences of iodine, due to the reduction of iodic acid, facilitated the generation of oxygen vacancies and 3d state Ti 3+ species in the TiO 2 lattice. The visible light absorption and enhanced photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 nanomaterials were attributed to existing oxygen vacancies, iodine multi-valences in I–O–Ti bonds, and 3d state Ti 3+ sites in the TiO 2 lattice. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency under visible light ( λ > 400 nm) followed a pseudo first-order kinetic model. Rutile nanowires using a two-step synthesis method produced the highest methylene blue (10 mg L −1 ) degradation rate constant, K ap , of 7.92 × 10 −3 min −1 compared to other synthesized nanomaterials. The K ap value obtained was an order of magnitude greater than commercial P25 (3.87 × 10 −4 min −1 ) and pristine TiO 2 nanowires (4.18 × 10 −4 min −1 ). The iodine doped TiO 2 photocatalysts can be used in TiO 2 /light irradiation advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in water treatment using sunlight or a visible light source, rather than an ultraviolet irradiation source.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                anandkps350@gmail.com
                ravicr128@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                27 January 2020
                27 January 2020
                2020
                : 10
                : 1249
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0501 2828, GRID grid.444321.4, Research Centre, Department of Science, , East West Institute of Technology, ; Bangalore, 560091 India
                [2 ]GRID grid.442848.6, Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Applied Natural Science, , Adama Science and Technology University, ; Po Box 1888, Adama, Ethiopia
                [3 ]PG Department of Chemistry, Davanagere University, Davanagere, 577001 India
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4692-444X
                Article
                58110
                10.1038/s41598-020-58110-7
                6985144
                31988344
                9f2365c8-bed0-45e7-921f-bf4f5d8b36c3
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 7 June 2019
                : 31 December 2019
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100007823, Adamawa State University, Mubi (Adamawa State University Mubi);
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                environmental chemistry,natural hazards
                Uncategorized
                environmental chemistry, natural hazards

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