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      Cardio-Respiratory Monitoring in Archery Using a Smart Textile Based on Flexible Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

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          Abstract

          In precision sports, the control of breathing and heart rate is crucial to help the body to remain stable in the shooting position. To improve stability, archers try to adopt similar breathing patterns and to have a low heartbeat during each shot. We proposed an easy-to-use and unobtrusive smart textile (ST) which is able to detect chest wall excursions due to breathing and heart beating. The sensing part is based on two FBGs housed into a soft polymer matrix to optimize the adherence to the chest wall and the system robustness. The ST was assessed on volunteers to figure out its performance in the estimation of respiratory frequency (f R) and heart rate (HR). Then, the system was tested on two archers during four shooting sessions. This is the first study to monitor cardio-respiratory activity on archers during shooting. The good performance of the ST is supported by the low mean absolute percentage error for f R and HR estimation (≤1.97% and ≤5.74%, respectively), calculated with respect to reference signals (flow sensor for f R, photopletismography sensor for HR). Moreover, results showed the capability of the ST to estimate f R and HR during different phases of shooting action. The promising results motivate future investigations to speculate about the influence of f R and HR on archers’ performance.

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          Most cited references24

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          Fiber grating spectra

          T Erdogan (1997)
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            Contact-Based Methods for Measuring Respiratory Rate

            There is an ever-growing demand for measuring respiratory variables during a variety of applications, including monitoring in clinical and occupational settings, and during sporting activities and exercise. Special attention is devoted to the monitoring of respiratory rate because it is a vital sign, which responds to a variety of stressors. There are different methods for measuring respiratory rate, which can be classed as contact-based or contactless. The present paper provides an overview of the currently available contact-based methods for measuring respiratory rate. For these methods, the sensing element (or part of the instrument containing it) is attached to the subject’s body. Methods based upon the recording of respiratory airflow, sounds, air temperature, air humidity, air components, chest wall movements, and modulation of the cardiac activity are presented. Working principles, metrological characteristics, and applications in the respiratory monitoring field are presented to explore potential development and applicability for each method.
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              The relationship between fear of falling and human postural control.

              This study was designed to improve the understanding of how standing at elevated surface heights and the associated changes in the visual field affect human balance control. Healthy young adults stood at four different surface heights (ground, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 m) under three different visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and eyes open with peripheral vision occluded). Mean position, Mean Power Frequency (MPF) and Root Mean Square (RMS) of centre of pressure (COP) displacements were calculated from 60s standing trials, and psychosocial and physiological measures of fear and anxiety were also collected. When standing at a height of 3.2 m, 10 of 36 participants reported an increase in anxiety and a robust fear response while the remaining 26 participants experienced only an increase in anxiety and no fear response. A between subjects analysis of the effect of surface height on postural control revealed that fearful and non-fearful participants adopted different postural control strategies with increased heights. Non-fearful participants demonstrated a postural response characterized by increased MPF and decreased RMS of COP displacements with increasing heights. In contrast, fearful participants demonstrated both increasing MPF and RMS of COP displacements with increasing heights. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct relationship between fear of falling and the strategies used for human postural control.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                17 August 2019
                August 2019
                : 19
                : 16
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unit of Measurement and Biomedical Instrumentation, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 00128 Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Neuro-Robotic Touch Laboratory, Biorobotics Institute, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, 56025 Pisa, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Linguistics and Comparative Cultural Studies, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, 30123 Venice, Italy
                [4 ]Photonics Micro- and Nanostructures Laboratory, ENEA Research Center of Frascati, 00044 Rome, Italy
                [5 ]Unit of Neurophysiology and Neuroengineering of Human-Technology Interaction, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 00128 Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: d.lopresti@ 123456unicampus.it ; Tel.: +39-062-2541-9650
                Article
                sensors-19-03581
                10.3390/s19163581
                6721071
                31426480
                9f247134-29c9-45ce-a75f-538f56c6889b
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Biomedical engineering
                fiber bragg gratings,smart textiles,wearable systems,cardiac monitoring,respiratory monitoring,precision sports,archery

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