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      Clinical profile and epidemiological factors of oral cancer patients from North India

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          Tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption are major contributing factors in the development of oral carcinoma. India has world's highest number of oral cancers (almost 20%) and approximately 1% of the Indian population has oral premalignant lesions.


          The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiological factors and clinical profile of oral cancer cases in our hospital.


          Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.

          Materials and Methods:

          A retrospective study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 on 479 cases with histopathologically confirmed oral carcinoma. Subjects’ details of age, sex, occupation, tobacco consumption, site of carcinoma, and stage at presentation were recorded.


          Mean age in this study was 47.84 years with male to female ratio of 3.1:1.0. Buccal mucosa and alveolus were the most affected sites. The majority of cases were from socially and economically weaker section, with 93.72% cases being tobacco users. The majority of cases were advance stage (Stage III and IV) with Stage IV being the predominant stage at presentation followed by Stage III.


          The findings of the study reveal that tobacco consumption is one of the major contributors in the development of cancer of oral cavity with the majority of cases presenting in advance stages posing a big therapeutic challenge.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Risk factors for cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx in Cuba

          In terms of worldwide levels, Cuba has an intermediate incidence of cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx. We studied 200 cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, of whom 57 women (median age = 64) and 200 hospital controls, frequency matched with cases by age and sex, in relation to smoking and drinking history, intake of 25 foods or food groups, indicators of oral hygiene and sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from unconditional multiple logistic regressions and adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, and smoking and drinking habits. In the multivariate model, high educational level and white-collar occupation, but not white race, were associated with halving of oral cancer risk. Smoking ≥30 cigarettes per day showed an OR of 20.8 (95% CI: 8.9–48.3), similar to smoking ≥4 cigars daily (OR = 20.5). Drinking ≥ 70 alcoholic drinks per week showed an OR of 5.7 (95% CI: 1.8–18.5). Hard liquors were by far the largest source of alcohol. Increased risk was associated with the highest tertile of intake for maize (OR = 1.9), meat (OR = 2.2) and ham and salami (OR = 2.0), whereas high fruit intake was associated with significantly decreased risk (OR = 0.4). Among indicators of dental care, number of missing teeth and poor general oral condition at oral inspection showed ORs of 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Number of sexual partners, marriages or contacts with prostitutes, practice of oral sex and history of various sexually transmitted diseases, including genital warts, were not associated with oral cancer risk. 82% of oral cancer cases in Cuba were attributable to tobacco smoking, 19% to smoking cigars or pipe only. The fractions attributable to alcohol drinking (7%) and low fruit intake (11%) were more modest. Thus, decreases in cigarette and cigar smoking are at present the key to oral cancer prevention in Cuba. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign
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            Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer

            In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
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              Social disparities in tobacco use in Mumbai, India: the roles of occupation, education, and gender.

              We assessed social disparities in the prevalence of overall tobacco use, smoking, and smokeless tobacco use in Mumbai, India, by examining occupation-, education-, and gender-specific patterns. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey conducted between 1992 and 1994 as the baseline for the Mumbai Cohort Study (n=81837). Odds ratios (ORs) for overall tobacco use according to education level (after adjustment for age and occupation) showed a strong gradient; risks were higher among illiterate participants (male OR = 7.38, female OR = 20.95) than among college educated participants. After age and education had been controlled, odds of tobacco use were also significant according to occupation; unskilled male workers (OR = 1.66), male service workers (OR = 1.32), and unemployed individuals (male OR = 1.84, female OR = 1.95) were more at risk than professionals. The steepest education- and occupation-specific gradients were observed among male bidi smokers and female smokeless tobacco users. The results of this study indicate that education and occupation have important simultaneous and independent relationships with tobacco use that require attention from policymakers and researchers alike.

                Author and article information

                Natl J Maxillofac Surg
                Natl J Maxillofac Surg
                National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jan-Jun 2015
                : 6
                : 1
                : 21-24
                Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
                [1 ]Department of Surgical Oncology, and Director All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
                [2 ]Department of Radiotherapy, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Vijay Kumar, Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: drvkumar2007@
                Copyright: © National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Original Article


                oral cancer epidemiology, buccal mucosa, oral cancer


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