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      Somatostatin and Dopamine-Somatostatin Multiple Ligands Directed towards Somatostatin and Dopamine Receptors in Pituitary Adenomas

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          Aim: We report the comparative efficacy of octreotide, cabergoline and multiple ligands directed towards the different somatostatin subtypes (ssts), such as BIM-23A779 and SOM-230, and of chimeric analogs which bind both somatostatin and the dopamine D<sub>2</sub> receptors (D2R), such as BIM-23A760 and BIM-23A781, in cell cultures from human growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. Procedures: RT-PCR analysis of the quantitative expression of the different ssts and D2R mRNAs was performed on tumor fragments of 22 GH-secreting adenomas collected after surgery. Pharmacological studies, using the different ligands, were performed on cell cultures of such tumors. Results: sst2, sst5 and D2R were constantly coexpressed in all tumors, in variable amounts. The levels of expression of sst2 and D2R mRNAs were significantly correlated with the maximal GH suppression by either octreotide or cabergoline (p < 0.001). In each tumor tested, 3 patterns of response, in terms of GH suppression, were observed. GH secretion was preferentially inhibited by the sst2 preferential compound octreotide in 61% of the tumors. In 19% of the tumors, the maximal inhibition of GH release was achieved with the sst5 preferential compound BIM-23268. The dopamine analog cabergoline was the most effective inhibitor of GH secretion in 21% of cases. Among the compounds tested, the most potent inhibitors of GH secretion were the sst2, sst5, D2R chimeric compound BIM-23A760, followed by the sst universal ligand SOM-230. Conclusions: The variable patterns of response to sst2, sst5 and dopamine D<sub>2</sub> analogs may explain the greater efficacy of drugs which bind to the 3 receptors in suppressing GH secretion. The biological potency (EC<sub>50</sub>) and efficacy of the chimeric compound BIM-23A760 on GH secretion can be partly explained by its high affinity for sst2. The effect of multiple receptor activation on the functions of other pituitary tumor types, such as prolactinomas and corticotropinomas, is not presently analyzed, and the efficacy of multireceptor ligands remains to be elucidated.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Receptors for dopamine and somatostatin: formation of hetero-oligomers with enhanced functional activity.

          Somatostatin and dopamine are two major neurotransmitter systems that share a number of structural and functional characteristics. Somatostatin receptors and dopamine receptors are colocalized in neuronal subgroups, and somatostatin is involved in modulating dopamine-mediated control of motor activity. However, the molecular basis for such interaction between the two systems is unclear. Here, we show that dopamine receptor D2R and somatostatin receptor SSTR5 interact physically through hetero-oligomerization to create a novel receptor with enhanced functional activity. Our results provide evidence that receptors from different G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein)-coupled receptor families interact through oligomerization. Such direct intramembrane association defines a new level of molecular crosstalk between related G protein-coupled receptor subfamilies.
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            Emerging role of homo- and heterodimerization in G-protein-coupled receptor biosynthesis and maturation.

            The idea that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can function as dimers is now generally accepted. Although an increasing amount of data suggests that dimers represent the basic signaling unit for most, if not all, members of this receptor family, GPCR dimerization might also be necessary to pass quality-control checkpoints of the biosynthetic pathway of GPCRs. To date, this hypothesis has been demonstrated unambiguously only for a small number of receptors that must form heterodimers to be exported properly to the plasma membrane (referred to as obligatory heterodimers). However, increasing evidence suggests that homodimerization might have a similar role in the receptor maturation process for many GPCRs.
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              The multi-ligand somatostatin analogue SOM230 inhibits ACTH secretion by cultured human corticotroph adenomas via somatostatin receptor type 5.

              Currently, there is no effective medical treatment for patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. A novel somatostatin (SS) analogue, named SOM230, with high binding affinity to SS receptor subtypes sst(1), sst(2), sst(3) and sst(5) was recently introduced. We compared the in vitro effects of the sst(2)-preferring SS analogue octreotide (OCT) and the multi-ligand SOM230 on ACTH release by human and mouse corticotroph tumour cells. By quantitative RT-PCR the sst subtype expression level was determined in human corticotroph adenomas. In vitro, the inhibitory effect of OCT and SOM230 on ACTH release by dispersed human corticotroph adenoma cells and mouse AtT20 corticotroph adenoma cells was determined. In addition, the influence of dexamethasone on the responsiveness to OCT and SOM230 was studied. Corticotroph adenomas expressed predominantly sst(5) mRNA (six out of six adenomas), whereas sst(2) mRNA expression was detected at significantly lower levels. In a 72 h incubation with 10 nmol/l SOM230, ACTH release was inhibited in three out of five cultures (range -30 to -40%). Ten nmol/l OCT slightly inhibited ACTH release in only one of five cultures (- 28%). In AtT20 cells, expressing sst(2), sst(3) and sst(5), SOM230 inhibited ACTH secretion with high potency (IC(50) 0.2 nmol/l). Dexamethasone (10 nmol/l) pre-treatment did not influence the sensitivity of the cells to the inhibitory effect of SOM230, suggesting that sst(5) is relatively resistant to negative control by glucocorticoids. The selective expression of sst(5) receptors in corticotroph adenomas and the preferential inhibition of ACTH release by human corticotroph adenoma cells by SOM230 in vitro, suggest that SOM230 may have potential in the treatment of patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 2006
                16 October 2006
                : 83
                : 3-4
                : 258-263
                aInteractions Cellulaires Neuroendocriniennes, UMR 6544, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Fédératif Jean Roche, Faculté de Médecine Nord, and bService de Neurochirurgie, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France; cIPSEN, Biomeasure, Milford, Mass., USA
                95536 Neuroendocrinology 2006;83:258–263
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 6


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