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      Therapeutic Potential of Oxytocin in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms and Signaling Pathways

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          Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cardiovascular disease responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The major pathophysiological basis of CAD is atherosclerosis in association with varieties of immunometabolic disorders that can suppress oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) signaling in the cardiovascular system (CVS). By contrast, OT not only maintains cardiovascular integrity but also has the potential to suppress and even reverse atherosclerotic alterations and CAD. These protective effects of OT are associated with its protection of the heart and blood vessels from immunometabolic injuries and the resultant inflammation and apoptosis through both peripheral and central approaches. As a result, OT can decelerate the progression of atherosclerosis and facilitate the recovery of CVS from these injuries. At the cellular level, the protective effect of OT on CVS involves a broad array of OTR signaling events. These signals mainly belong to the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway that is composed of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase cascades and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase, Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase signaling and many others are also implicated in OTR signaling in the CVS protection. These signaling events interact coordinately at many levels to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of apoptotic pathways. A particular target of these signaling events is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial oxidative stress that interact through mitochondria-associated ER membrane. In contrast to these protective effects and machineries, rare but serious cardiovascular disturbances were also reported in labor induction and animal studies including hypotension, reflexive tachycardia, coronary spasm or thrombosis and allergy. Here, we review our current understanding of the protective effect of OT against varieties of atherosclerotic etiologies as well as the approaches and underlying mechanisms of these effects. Moreover, potential cardiovascular disturbances following OT application are also discussed to avoid unwanted effects in clinical trials of OT usages.

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          Stroke incidence and mortality trends in US communities, 1987 to 2011.

          Prior studies have shown decreases in stroke mortality over time, but data on validated stroke incidence and long-term trends by race are limited.
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            Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration

            The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation, but systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin- a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition, and social behaviors - is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signaling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation throughactivation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle, but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle aging.
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              The conserved phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway determines heart size in mice.

              Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) has been shown to regulate cell and organ size in Drosophila, but the role of PI3K in vertebrates in vivo is not well understood. To examine the role of PI3K in intact mammalian tissue, we have created and characterized transgenic mice expressing constitutively active or dominant-negative mutants of PI3K in the heart. Cardiac- specific expression of constitutively active PI3K resulted in mice with larger hearts, while dominant-negative PI3K resulted in mice with smaller hearts. The increase or decrease in heart size was associated with comparable increase or decrease in myocyte size. Cardiomyopathic changes, such as myocyte necrosis, apoptosis, interstitial fibrosis or contractile dysfunction, were not observed in either of the transgenic mice. Thus, the PI3K pathway is necessary and sufficient to promote organ growth in mammals.

                Author and article information

                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                21 May 2019
                : 13
                1Department of Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Harbin Medical University , Harbin, China
                2Department of Medicine, Albany Medical Center , Albany, NY, United States
                3Department of Pediatrics, The Forth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University , Harbin, China
                4Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Harbin Medical University , Harbin, China
                5Department of Physiology, Jiamusi University , Jiamusi, China
                6Department of Physiology, Shantou University of Medical College , Shantou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Pierrette Gaudreau, Université de Montréal, Canada

                Reviewed by: Marta Busnelli, Italian National Research Council (CNR), Italy; Philip M. McCabe, University of Miami, United States

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Neuroendocrine Science, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                Copyright © 2019 Wang, Wang, Yang, Lv, Jia, Liu, Wang, Meng, Qin, Zhu and Wang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 231, Pages: 21, Words: 0
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809


                atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, etiology, oxytocin, signaling pathways


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