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      Contrasting patterns and drivers of soil bacterial and fungal diversity across a mountain gradient.

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          Abstract

          Microbial elevational diversity patterns have been extensively studied, but their shaping mechanisms remain to be explored. Here, we examined soil bacterial and fungal diversity and community compositions across a 3.4 km elevational gradient (consists of five elevations) on Mt. Kilimanjaro located in East Africa. Bacteria and fungi had different diversity patterns across this extensive mountain gradient-bacterial diversity had a U shaped pattern while fungal diversity monotonically decreased. Random forest analysis revealed that pH (12.61% importance) was the most important factor affecting bacterial diversity, whereas mean annual temperature (9.84% importance) had the largest impact on fungal diversity, which was consistent with results obtained from mixed-effects model. Meanwhile, the diversity patterns and drivers of those diversity patterns differ among taxonomic groups (phyla/classes) within bacterial or fungal communities. Taken together, our study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal diversity and community composition responded differently to climate and edaphic properties along an extensive mountain gradient, and suggests that the elevational diversity patterns across microbial groups are determined by distinct environmental variables. These findings enhanced our understanding of the formation and maintenance of microbial diversity along elevation, as well as microbial responses to climate change in montane ecosystems.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Environ Microbiol
          Environmental microbiology
          Wiley
          1462-2920
          1462-2912
          August 2020
          : 22
          : 8
          Affiliations
          [1 ] State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China.
          [2 ] University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.
          [3 ] Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhof Strasse 1a, Witzenhausen, 32213, Germany.
          [4 ] Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.
          [5 ] State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.
          [6 ] Department of Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, 37077, Germany.
          [7 ] Department of Agricultural Soil Science, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, 37077, Germany.
          [8 ] Institute of Environmental Sciences, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, 420049, Russia.
          [9 ] Agro-Technological Institute, RUDN University, Moscow, 117198, Russia.
          [10 ] Department of Plant Systematics, University of Bayreuth, Universitӓtsstraße 30, Bayreuth, 95440, Germany.
          [11 ] Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.
          [12 ] Gund Institute for Environment, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.
          Article
          10.1111/1462-2920.15090
          32436332
          9f468049-c578-486d-b843-ac2266d238c9
          © 2020 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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