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      Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Subconjunctival/Perilesional 5-Fluorouracil Injections for Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

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          To investigate the effectiveness and safety of subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injections on ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) during a 3-year follow-up period.

          Patients and Methods

          We followed up six patients with intraepithelial OSSN (in one eye each) that had regressed after subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injections. Conjunctival fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), as well as anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), were performed to evaluate the OSSN status 3 years after initiation of treatment.


          The mean age of patients (five males, one female) at baseline was 62.3±11.6 years. The mean number of 5-fluorouracil injections was 17.0±8.6, with a mean treatment duration of 13.0±7.4 weeks. At the final visit, both intratumoral and conjunctival feeding vessels had disappeared on ICGA and FA, with no neovascularization-related leakage, in accordance with the results of AS-OCT. The period from complete tumor regression to final visit according to AS-OCT was 32.5±4.2 months, which was longer than that according to ICGA (31.3±3.2 months, p=0.034). The final best-corrected visual acuity was similar to that at baseline (p=0.128). No side effects were observed in any of the eyes.


          Subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injections are an effective and safe treatment for OSSN. Future studies with a larger sample size are warranted for confirmation of our findings, as well as investigation into the reasons for residual areas of non-perfusion in the conjunctiva.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Epidemiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Africa

          Objectives To describe the epidemiology and an aetiological model of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Africa. Methods Systematic and non-systematic review methods were used. Incidence was obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the reference lists of articles retrieved. Meta-analyses were conducted using a fixed-effects model for HIV and cigarette smoking and random effects for human papilloma virus (HPV). Results The incidence of OSSN is highest in the Southern Hemisphere (16° South), with the highest age-standardised rate (ASR) reported from Zimbabwe (3.4 and 3.0 cases/year/100 000 population for males and females, respectively). The mean ASR worldwide is 0.18 and 0.08 cases/year/100 000 among males and females, respectively. The risk increases with exposure to direct daylight (2–4 h, OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.4 and ≥5 h OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1) and outdoor occupations (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6). Meta-analysis also shows a strong association with HIV (6 studies: OR = 6.17, 95% CI: 4.83–7.89) and HPV (7 studies: OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.27–5.49) but not cigarette smoking (2 studies: OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.94–2.09). The effect of atopy, xeroderma pigmentosa and vitamin A deficiency is unclear. Conclusions Africa has the highest incidence of OSSN in the world, where males and females are equally affected, unlike other continents where male disease predominates. African women probably have increased risk due to their higher prevalence of HIV and HPV infections. As the survival of HIV-infected people increases, and given no evidence that anti-retroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of OSSN, the incidence of OSSN may increase in coming years.
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            Ocular surface squamous neoplasia

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              Ultra high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and management of ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

              The development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has helped to usher in a new era of in vivo diagnostic imaging of the eye. The utilization of OCT for imaging of the anterior segment and ocular surface has evolved from time-domain devices to spectral-domain devices with greater penetrance and resolution, providing novel images of anterior segment pathology to assist in diagnosis and management of disease. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is one such pathology that has proven demonstrable by certain anterior segment OCT machines, specifically the newer devices capable of performing ultra high-resolution OCT (UHR-OCT). Distinctive features of OSSN on high resolution OCT allow for diagnosis and differentiation from other ocular surface pathologies. Subtle findings on these images help to characterize the OSSN lesions beyond what is apparent with the clinical examination, providing guidance for clinical management. The purpose of this review is to examine the published literature on the utilization of UHR-OCT for the diagnosis and management of OSSN, as well as to report novel uses of this technology and potential directions for its future development.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                22 December 2020
                : 14
                : 5659-5665
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University , Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rui Hua Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University , No. 155 Nanjingbei Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning110001, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13-840583355Fax +86-24-83282630 Email woodshua@126.com
                © 2020 Sun and Hua.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 26, Pages: 7
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100005047;
                Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (No.20170541041). The funders had no role in the study design, in data collection, analysis, or interpretation, in the decision to publish, or in preparation of the manuscript.
                Original Research


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