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      Insights into Lignan Composition and Biosynthesis in Stinging Nettle ( Urtica dioica L.)

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          Abstract

          Stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments since ancient times. The biological activity of nettle is chiefly attributed to a large group of phenylpropanoid dimers, namely lignans. Despite the pharmacological importance of nettle lignans, there are no studies addressing lignan biosynthesis in this plant. We herein identified 14 genes encoding dirigent proteins ( UdDIRs) and 3 pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase genes ( UdPLRs) in nettle, which are two gene families known to be associated with lignan biosynthesis. Expression profiling of these genes on different organs/tissues revealed a specific expression pattern. Particularly, UdDIR7, 12 and 13 displayed a remarkable high expression in the top internode, fibre tissues of bottom internodes and roots, respectively. The relatively high expression of UdPLR1 and UdPLR2 in the young internodes, core tissue of bottom internode and roots is consistent with the high accumulation of lariciresinol and secoisolariciresinol in these tissues. Lignan quantification showed a high abundance of pinoresinol in roots and pinoresinol diglucosides in young internodes and leaves. This study sheds light on lignan composition and biosynthesis in nettle, providing a good basis for further functional analysis of DIRs and PLRs and, ultimately, engineering lignan metabolism in planta and in cell cultures.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Jalview Version 2—a multiple sequence alignment editor and analysis workbench

          Summary: Jalview Version 2 is a system for interactive WYSIWYG editing, analysis and annotation of multiple sequence alignments. Core features include keyboard and mouse-based editing, multiple views and alignment overviews, and linked structure display with Jmol. Jalview 2 is available in two forms: a lightweight Java applet for use in web applications, and a powerful desktop application that employs web services for sequence alignment, secondary structure prediction and the retrieval of alignments, sequences, annotation and structures from public databases and any DAS 1.53 compliant sequence or annotation server. Availability: The Jalview 2 Desktop application and JalviewLite applet are made freely available under the GPL, and can be downloaded from www.jalview.org Contact: g.j.barton@dundee.ac.uk
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            Open source clustering software.

            We have implemented k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering and self-organizing maps in a single multipurpose open-source library of C routines, callable from other C and C++ programs. Using this library, we have created an improved version of Michael Eisen's well-known Cluster program for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux/Unix. In addition, we generated a Python and a Perl interface to the C Clustering Library, thereby combining the flexibility of a scripting language with the speed of C. The C Clustering Library and the corresponding Python C extension module Pycluster were released under the Python License, while the Perl module Algorithm::Cluster was released under the Artistic License. The GUI code Cluster 3.0 for Windows, Macintosh and Linux/Unix, as well as the corresponding command-line program, were released under the same license as the original Cluster code. The complete source code is available at http://bonsai.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/mdehoon/software/cluster. Alternatively, Algorithm::Cluster can be downloaded from CPAN, while Pycluster is also available as part of the Biopython distribution.
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              Primer3Plus, an enhanced web interface to Primer3

              Here we present Primer3Plus, a new web interface to the popular Primer3 primer design program as an enhanced alternative for the CGI- scripts that come with Primer3. Primer3 consists of a command line program and a web interface. The web interface is one large form showing all of the possible options. This makes the interface powerful, but at the same time confusing for occasional users. Primer3Plus provides an intuitive user interface using present-day web technologies and has been developed in close collaboration with molecular biologists and technicians regularly designing primers. It focuses on the task at hand, and hides detailed settings from the user until these are needed. We also added functionality to automate specific tasks like designing primers for cloning or step-wise sequencing. Settings and designed primer sequences can be stored locally for later use. Primer3Plus supports a range of common sequence formats, such as FASTA. Finally, primers selected by Primer3Plus can be sent to an order form, allowing tight integration into laboratory ordering systems. Moreover, the open architecture of Primer3Plus allows easy expansion or integration of external software packages. The Primer3Plus Perl source code is available under GPL license from SourceForge. Primer3Plus is available at http://www.bioinformatics.nl/primer3plus.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                26 October 2019
                November 2019
                : 24
                : 21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), L-4362 Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg; xuan.xu@ 123456list.lu (X.X.); cedric.guignard@ 123456list.lu (C.G.); jenny.renaut@ 123456list.lu (J.R.); jean-francois.hausman@ 123456list.lu (J.-F.H.)
                [2 ]Institute of Bioeconomy (IBE), National Research Council, I-40129 Bologna, Italy; e.gatti@ 123456ibimet.cnr.it (E.G.); s.predieri@ 123456ibimet.cnr.it (S.P.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: gea.guerriero@ 123456list.lu
                Article
                molecules-24-03863
                10.3390/molecules24213863
                6864805
                31717749
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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