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      Transglutaminase 1 Stabilizes β-Actin in Endothelial Cells Correlating with a Stabilization of Intercellular Junctions



      Journal of Vascular Research

      S. Karger AG

      Cell adhesion, Permeability, RNAi, TGase1, TGase2

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          Microvascular endothelial monolayers from mouse myocardium become resistant to various barrier-compromising stimuli correlating with the expression of transglutaminase 1 (TGase1) and its translocation towards cellular junctions. In contrast, endothelial monolayers from mouse lung microvessels do not express TGase1 and remain sensitive to barrier-compromising stimuli corresponding to the known in vivo sensitivity of the lung microvasculature. Using the TGase-substrate 5-(biotinamido)-pentylamine, specific TGase inhibitors and RNAi, one target protein of TGase1 in endothelial cells was found to be β-actin, suggesting that tissue-specific stabilization of the cortical actin filament network by intracellular TGase1 activity may play a role in controlling barrier properties of endothelial monolayers.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Molecular and functional analysis of cadherin-based adherens junctions.

          Adherens junctions are specialized forms of cadherin-based adhesive contacts important for tissue organization in developing and adult organisms. Cadherins form protein complexes with cytoplasmic proteins (catenins) that convert the specific, homophilic-binding capacity of the extracellular domain into stable cell adhesion. The extracellular domains of cadherins form parallel dimers that possess intrinsic homophilic-binding activity. Cytoplasmic interactions can influence the function of the ectodomain by a number of potential mechanisms, including redistribution of binding sites into clusters, providing cytoskeletal anchorage, and mediating physiological regulation of cadherin function. Adherens junctions are likely to serve specific, specialized functions beyond the basic adhesive process. These functions include coupling cytoskeletal force generation to strongly adherent sites on the cell surface and the regulation of intracellular signaling events.
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            Monoclonal antibodies directed to different regions of vascular endothelial cadherin extracellular domain affect adhesion and clustering of the protein and modulate endothelial permeability.

            Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) is an endothelial cell-specific cadherin that plays an important role in the control of vascular organization. Blocking VE-cadherin antibodies strongly inhibit angiogenesis, and inactivation of VE-cadherin gene causes embryonic lethality due to a lack of correct organization and remodeling of the vasculature. Hence, inhibitors of VE-cadherin adhesive properties may constitute a tool to prevent tumor neovascularization. In this paper, we tested different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to human VE-cadherin ectodomain for their functional activity. Three mAbs (Cad 5, BV6, BV9) were able to increase paracellular permeability, inhibit VE-cadherin reorganization, and block angiogenesis in vitro. These mAbs could also induce endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro. Two additional mAbs, TEA 1.31 and Hec 1.2, had an intermediate or undetectable activity, respectively, in these assays. Epitope mapping studies show that BV6, BV9, TEA 1.31, and Hec 1.2 bound to a recombinant fragment spanning the extracellular juxtamembrane domains EC3 through EC4. In contrast, Cad 5 bound to the aminoterminal domain EC1. By peptide scanning analysis and competition experiments, we defined the sequences TIDLRY located on EC3 and KVFRVDAETGDVFAI on EC1 as the binding domain of BV6 and Cad 5, respectively. Overall, these results support the concept that VE-cadherin plays a relevant role on human endothelial cell properties. Antibodies directed to the extracellular domains EC1 but also EC3-EC4 affect VE-cadherin adhesion and clustering and alter endothelial cell permeability, apoptosis, and vascular structure formation.
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              The cornified envelope of terminally differentiated human epidermal keratinocytes consists of cross-linked protein.

              A small proportion of the protein of stratum corneum of human epidermal callus is insoluble even when boiled in solutions containing sodium dodecylsulfate and a reducing agent. This protein is present in the cornified envelope, a structure located beneath the plasma membrane. When cornified envelopes were dissolved by exhaustive proteolytic digestion and the products analyzed by chromatography, approximately 18% of the total lysine residues were found as the cross-linking dipeptide epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl) lysine. Labeled cornified envelope protein was synthesized by human epidermal keratinocytes allowed to differentiate terminally in culture. The extent of cross-linking, determined from the proportion of radioactive lysine in epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl) lysine after exhaustive proteolysis, was similar to that in stratum corneum. The properties of the cornified envelopes (insolubility in detergent and reducing agents, and solubility following proteolytic digestion) are readily explained by a structure consisting of a cross-linked protein lattice.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                April 2007
                28 February 2007
                : 44
                : 3
                : 234-240
                Department of Cellular Neurobionics, Institute of Biology II, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, and Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
                100422 J Vasc Res 2007;44:234–240
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 23, Pages: 7
                Research Paper


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