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      TIME - MAKING THE BEST OF IT! A Fieldwork Study Outlining Time in Endoscopy Facilities for Short-Term Stay

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          This paper focus on nursing and time in endoscopy facilities for short-term stay aiming to explore aspects of time in this setting and how expectations from the healthcare organisation, patients and nurses are expressed and met when managing nursing time.


          Former research primarily focuses on the subject of time in the understanding of duration where having more time is closely associated with the ability to deliver better quality nursing care. The main concern is the nurses’ increased number of tasks and the decreased length of time at their disposal. However, few studies describe nursing when time is sparse, and the possibility of providing individualised nursing within a very short span of time.


          Inspired by practical ethnographic principles, a fieldwork study was performed in high technology endoscopy clinics during 2008-2010.


          Data triangulation included participant observation, participant reports and patients and nurses semi-structured interviews.


          The issue of time was an interwoven part of life in the productive endoscopy units. The understanding of time related to the main category: ‘Time - making the best of it’, and the sub categories “Responsibility of time”, “Information and preparation”, and “Time wasters”.


          The study underlines the possibility of combining the health care systems, patients and the nurses’ perspectives on and expectations of how to spend nursing time in endoscopy settings. In successful patient pathways nursing maximize patient outcome, support the goals of the healthcare organisations, is reliable, assure, tangible, empathic and responsive, and is individually tailored to the patient’s needs. The study contributes by underlining the importance of discussing not how to get more time in clinical practice but instead how to spend the time in the best way possible.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Researching Lived Experience. Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy

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            Person-centred interactions between nurses and patients during medication activities in an acute hospital setting: qualitative observation and interview study.

            There is increasing emphasis on person-centred care within the literature and the health care context. It is suggested that a person-centred approach to medication activities has the potential to improve patient experiences and outcomes. This study set out to examine how nurses and patients interact with each other during medication activities in an acute care environment with an underlying philosophy of person-centred care. A qualitative approach was used comprising naturalistic observation and semi-structured interviews. The study setting was an acute care ward with a collaboratively developed philosophy of person-centre care, in an Australian metropolitan hospital. Eleven nurses of varying levels of experience were recruited to participate in observations and interviews. Nurses were eligible to participate if they were employed on the study ward in a role that incorporated direct patient care, including medication activities. A stratified sampling technique ensured that nurses with a range of years of clinical experience were represented. Patients who were being cared for by participating nurses during the observation period were recruited to participate unless they met the following exclusion criteria: those less than 18 years of age, non-English speaking patients, and those who were unable to give informed consent. Twenty-five patients were observed and 16 of those agreed to be interviewed. The results of the study generated insights into the nature of interactions between nurses and patients where person-centred care is the underlying philosophy of care. Three major themes emerged from the findings: provision of individualised care, patient participation and contextual barriers to providing person-centred care. While the participating nurses valued a person-centred approach and perceived that they were conducting medication activities in a person-centred way, some nurse-patient interactions during medication activities were centred on routines rather than individualised patient assessment and management. These interactions were based on nurses' perceptions of what was important for the patient and did not provide opportunities for patient participation. Two main contextual barriers in relation to a person-centred approach to medication activities were identified as multidisciplinary communication and time constraints. While some nurse-patient interactions during medication activities were consistent with the principles of person-centred care, the study results highlighted factors that influence the nature of these interactions, and identified opportunities to improve nursing practice. To ensure person-centred care is applied to medication activities, nurses should undertake ongoing assessment of patients' needs in relation to their medications and encourage opportunities for increased patient participation. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              A dimensional analysis of patient-centered care.

              Patient-centered care (PCC) is a poorly conceptualized phenomenon and can indicate anything from soothing room design, emotional support of patients, customization of meals, to support of patient decision making. This inconsistency across the clinical and research literature makes the application of PCC difficult. The objective of this study was to identify dimensions of PCC as found in the literature. A dimensional analysis of PCC was conducted from 69 clinical and research articles published from 2000 to 2006. Coding of the literature for the perspective, context, conditions, process, and consequences of PCC was completed. These codes were used to determine literature selected for inclusion, organize article content, and frame the delineation of PCC. Alleviating vulnerabilities, consisting of both compromised physiological states and threats to individual identity, was constant throughout the literature. Therapeutic engagement was the process sustaining the patient during an illness episode that necessitated service use and involved allocating time, carrying out information practices, knowing the patient, and developing a relationship. This process occurs during nurse-patient interaction, sustained during successive interactions, and reinforced by the information practices of a particular setting. The interaction between nurse and patient is central to the effective study and application of PCC. Appropriate use of PCC can improve study outcomes and measurements by clarifying the variables involved, and PCC holds great promise to frame patient outcome and satisfaction research by analyzing how and with what effect nurses alleviate patient vulnerability. Moreover, consideration of information practices as a critical supporting structure of nurse-patient interaction can be explored.

                Author and article information

                Open Nurs J
                Open Nurs J
                The Open Nursing Journal
                Bentham Open
                27 April 2016
                : 10
                : 15-25
                [1 ]Acute Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
                [2 ]Aalborg Hospital Science and Innovation Center (AHSIC), Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark
                [3 ]Department of Nursing Science, School of Public Health & Institute of Clinical Medicine Health, Aarhus, Denmark
                Author notes
                *Address correspondence to this author at the Acute Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Building 12A, DK - 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Tel: +45 20277136; Email: karinmik@
                © Bundgaard et al ; Licensee Bentham Open.

                This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.



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