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      Actividad in vitro de Bacillus spp. en la inhibición de crecimiento micelial de Fusarium equiseti Y Fusarium solani aislado de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) Translated title: In vitro activity of Bacillus spp. on mycelial growth inhibition of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium solani isolated from habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.)

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          Abstract

          Resumen Fusarium puede inducir marchitez en chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.), con frecuencia está en el suelo y en especies diversas y el uso de fungicidas sistémicos es común para su control. Esta enfermedad demanda investigación enfocada a disminuir el uso de fungicidas que propician la permanencia de poblaciones resistentes de fitopatógenos y contaminan el ambiente. Las especies de Bacillus antagonistas son una alternativa para el control de fitopatógenos, como Fusarium spp., causantes de etiologías fúngicas en cultivos como el chile habanero. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad in vitro de Bacillus spp. en la inhibición del crecimiento micelial de Fusarium equiseti y F. solani, causantes de la marchitez en chile habanero, en confrontaciones directas y mediante filtrados libres de células para inhibir la germinación de conidios, y detectar la presencia de los genes encargados de dirigir la síntesis de lipopéptidos involucrados con actividad antifúngica. La hipótesis fue que al menos una cepa de Bacillus spp. inhibe a F. equiseti y F. solani, y es posible detectar al menos un gen de la síntesis de lipopéptidos. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Todos los antagonistas inhibieron el crecimiento micelial de F. equiseti (2.15 a 71.55 %) y F. solani (3.76 a 69.16 %). El filtrado de Bacillus subtilis CBRF8 inhibió 100 % la germinación de los conidios y la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR) amplificó tres fragmentos de los genes bamC, ituA y sfp, que corresponden a la bacilomicina D, la iturina A y la surfactina.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Fusarium can induce wilt in habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.), it is frequently found in the soil and in various plant species and the use of systemic fungicides is common for it’s control. This disease demands research focused on decreasing the use of fungicides that favor the permanence of resistant populations of plant pathogens and pollute the environment. Antagonists Bacillus species are an alternative for plant pathogen control, such as Fusarium spp., causing fungal etiologies in crops such as the habanero peppers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of Bacillus spp. on inhibiting mycelial growth of Fusarium equiseti and F. solani, which cause wilting in habanero peppers, in direct confrontations and by using cellfree filtrates to inhibit conidia germination. These allow to detect the presence of the genes responsible for directing the lipopeptides synthesis involved in antifungal activity. Our hypothesis was that at least one strain of Bacillus spp. inhibits F. equiseti and F. solani, and is possible to detect at least one gene for lipopeptid synthesis. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. All antagonists inhibited the mycelial growth of F. equiseti (2.15 to 71.55 %) and F. solani (3.76 to 69.16 %). Filtrates of Bacillus subtilis CBRF8 inhibited 100 % conidia germination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified three fragments of the genes: bamC, ituA and sfp which correspond to bacillomycin D, iturin A and surfactin.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Archaea in coastal marine environments.

          Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and the extreme thermophiles. In the marine environment, archaeal habitats are generally limited to shallow or deep-sea anaerobic sediments (free-living and endosymbiotic methanogens), hot springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents (methanogens, sulfate reducers, and extreme thermophiles), and highly saline land-locked seas (halophiles). This report provides evidence for the widespread occurrence of unusual archaea in oxygenated coastal surface waters of North America. Quantitative estimates indicated that up to 2% of the total ribosomal RNA extracted from coastal bacterioplankton assemblages was archaeal. Archaeal small-subunit ribosomal RNA-encoding DNAs (rDNAs) were cloned from mixed bacterioplankton populations collected at geographically distant sampling sites. Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each sharing the diagnostic signatures and structural features previously established for the domain Archaea. Both of these lineages were found in bacterioplankton populations collected off the east and west coasts of North America. The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent undescribed physiological types of archaea, which reside and compete with aerobic, mesophilic eubacteria in marine coastal environments.
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            Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 as a source of potent antibiotics and other secondary metabolites for biocontrol of plant pathogens

            Background Phytopathogenic fungi affecting crop and post-harvested vegetables are a major threat to food production and food storage. To face these drawbacks, producers have become increasingly dependent on agrochemicals. However, intensive use of these compounds has led to the emergence of pathogen resistance and severe negative environmental impacts. There are also a number of plant diseases for which chemical solutions are ineffective or non-existent as well as an increasing demand by consumers for pesticide-free food. Thus, biological control through the use of natural antagonistic microorganisms has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for more rational and safe crop management. Results The genome of the plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 was sample sequenced. Several gene clusters involved in the synthesis of biocontrol agents were detected. Four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A and fengycin as well as the iron-siderophore bacillibactin. Beside these non-ribosomaly synthetised peptides, three additional gene clusters directing the synthesis of the antibacterial polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene and difficidin were identified. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants led to the identification of these secondary metabolites, hence demonstrating that the corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters are functional in strain GA1. In addition, genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis and export of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin were highlighted. However, only its chlorinated derivative, chlorotetaine, could be detected in culture supernatants. On the contrary, genes involved in ribosome-dependent synthesis of bacteriocin and other antibiotic peptides were not detected as compared to the reference strain B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Conclusion The production of all of these antibiotic compounds highlights B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 as a good candidate for the development of biocontrol agents.
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              Isolation and characterization of antagonistic Bacillus subtilis strains from the avocado rhizoplane displaying biocontrol activity.

              This study was undertaken to isolate Bacillus subtilis strains with biological activity against soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi from the avocado rhizoplane.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                agro
                Agrociencia
                Agrociencia
                Colegio de Postgraduados (México, DF, Mexico )
                1405-3195
                December 2016
                : 50
                : 8
                : 1123-1135
                Affiliations
                Conkal Yucatán orgnameInstituto Tecnológico de Conkal Mexico areyes.itconkal@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S1405-31952016000801123

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 13
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