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Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes with Retinal Vein Occlusion

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      Abstract

      Optical coherence angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive technique that has been introduced in recent years to detect ophthalmological pathology. The growing usage of OCTA to detect retinal abnormalities can be attributed to its advantages over the reference-standard fluorescein angiography (FA), although both of these techniques can be used in association. OCTA's advantages include its dye independency, its ability to produce depth-resolved images of retinal and choroidal vessels that yield images of different vascular layers of the retina, and the better delineation of the foveal avascular zone. OCTA's disadvantages include the lack of normalized patient data, artefactual projection issues, and its inability to detect low-flow lesions or pathologic conditions. Different OCTA platforms use unique algorithms to detect microvasculature, which are implemented in both spectral-domain (SD) and swept-source (SS) OCT machines. Microvascular changes in retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) are visible in both the superficial and deep capillary networks of the retina in OCTA. These visualizations include a decrease in foveal and parafoveal vascular densities, non-perfusion areas, capillary engorgement and telangiectasias, vascular tortuosity, microaneurysms, disruption of the foveal perivascular plexus, and formation of collateral vessels. The restricted field of view and inability to show leakage are important limitations associated with the use of OCTA in RVO cases. In this article, we present a brief overview of OCTA and a review of the changes detectable in different slabs by OCTA in RVO cases published in PubMed and Embase.

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      Most cited references 62

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      Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography.

      The retinal vasculature is involved in many ocular diseases that cause visual loss. Although fluorescein angiography is the criterion standard for evaluating the retina vasculature, it has risks of adverse effects and known defects in imaging all the layers of the retinal vasculature. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography can image vessels based on flow characteristics and may provide improved information.
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        A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA)

        Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging technique that generates volumetric angiography images in a matter of seconds. This is a nascent technology with a potential wide applicability for retinal vascular disease. At present, level 1 evidence of the technology’s clinical applications doesn’t exist. In this paper, we introduce the technology, review the available English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the current angiographic gold standards, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Finally we summarize its potential application to retinal vascular diseases. OCTA is quick and non-invasive, and provides volumetric data with the clinical capability of specifically localizing and delineating pathology along with the ability to show both structural and blood flow information in tandem. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and proclivity for image artifact due to patient movement/blinking. Published studies hint at OCTA’s potential efficacy in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such age related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, artery and vein occlusions, and glaucoma. OCTA can detect changes in choroidal blood vessel flow and can elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a variety of conditions but especially in AMD. It provides a highly detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows for accurate delineation of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in diabetic eyes and detection of subtle microvascular abnormalities in diabetic and vascular occlusive eyes. Optic disc perfusion in glaucomatous eyes is notable as well on OCTA. Further studies are needed to more definitively determine OCTA’s utility in the clinical setting and to establish if this technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature in detail.
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          Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second.

          We demonstrate ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain ophthalmic OCT imaging using a short cavity swept laser at 100,000 - 400,000 axial scan rates. Several design configurations illustrate tradeoffs in imaging speed, sensitivity, axial resolution, and imaging depth. Variable rate A/D optical clocking is used to acquire linear-in-k OCT fringe data at 100 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution in tissue. Fixed rate sampling at 1 GSPS achieves a 7.5mm imaging range in tissue with 6.0 um axial resolution at 100 kHz axial scan rate. A 200 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution over 4mm imaging range is achieved by buffering the laser sweep. Dual spot OCT using two parallel interferometers achieves 400 kHz axial scan rate, almost 2X faster than previous 1050 nm ophthalmic results and 20X faster than current commercial instruments. Superior sensitivity roll-off performance is shown. Imaging is demonstrated in the human retina and anterior segment. Wide field 12x12 mm data sets include the macula and optic nerve head. Small area, high density imaging shows individual cone photoreceptors. The 7.5 mm imaging range configuration can show the cornea, iris, and anterior lens in a single image. These improvements in imaging speed and depth range provide important advantages for ophthalmic imaging. The ability to rapidly acquire 3D-OCT data over a wide field of view promises to simplify examination protocols. The ability to image fine structures can provide detailed information on focal pathologies. The large imaging range and improved image penetration at 1050 m wavelengths promises to improve performance for instrumentation which images both the retina and anterior eye. These advantages suggest that swept source OCT at 1050 nm wavelengths will play an important role in future ophthalmic instrumentation.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
            [2 ] School of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Ireland
            [3 ] Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
            [4 ] Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, USA
            Author notes
            Correspondence to: Rishi P. Singh. Cole eye institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Desk i32, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA. E-mail: SINGHR@ 123456ccf.org
            Journal
            J Ophthalmic Vis Res
            J Ophthalmic Vis Res
            JOVR
            Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            2008-2010
            2008-322X
            Jul-Sep 2018
            : 13
            : 3
            : 315-332
            6058553 JOVR-13-315 10.4103/jovr.jovr_264_17
            Copyright: © 2018 Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research

            This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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