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      Role of Chlorogenic Acids in Controlling Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress Conditions


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          Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are esters formed between caffeic and quinic acids, and represent an abundant group of plant polyphenols present in the human diet. CGAs have different subgroups that include caffeoylquinic, p-coumaroylquinic, and feruloyquinic acids. Results of epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of beverages such as coffee, tea, wine, different herbal infusions, and also some fruit juices are linked to reduced risks of developing different chronic diseases. These beverages contain CGAs present in different concentrations and isomeric mixtures. The underlying mechanism(s) for specific health benefits attributed to CGAs involves mitigating oxidative stress, and hence the related adverse effects associated with an unbalanced intracellular redox state. There is also evidence to show that CGAs exhibit anti-inflammatory activities by modulating a number of important metabolic pathways. This review will focus on three specific aspects of the relevance of CGAs in coffee beverages; namely: (1) the relative composition of different CGA isomers present in coffee beverages; (2) analysis of in vitro and in vivo evidence that CGAs and individual isomers can mitigate oxidative and inflammatory stresses; and (3) description of the molecular mechanisms that have a key role in the cell signaling activity that underlines important functions.

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          Origin and physiological roles of inflammation.

          Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Although the pathological aspects of many types of inflammation are well appreciated, their physiological functions are mostly unknown. The classic instigators of inflammation - infection and tissue injury - are at one end of a large range of adverse conditions that induce inflammation, and they trigger the recruitment of leukocytes and plasma proteins to the affected tissue site. Tissue stress or malfunction similarly induces an adaptive response, which is referred to here as para-inflammation. This response relies mainly on tissue-resident macrophages and is intermediate between the basal homeostatic state and a classic inflammatory response. Para-inflammation is probably responsible for the chronic inflammatory conditions that are associated with modern human diseases.
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            Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

            Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research since its first publication in 1985. <br> This latest edition has been comprehensively rewritten and updated (over 80% of the text is new), while maintaining the clarity of its predecessor. There is expanded coverage of isoprostanes and related compounds, mechanisms of oxidative damage to DNA and proteins (and the repair of such damage), the free radical theory of aging and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell death, human reproduction, and other important biological events. Greater emphasis has also been placed on the methods available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls), as well as the importance of antioxidants in the human diet. <br> This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, clinicians and researchers, and an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.
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              Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates - nature, occurrence and dietary burden


                Author and article information

                28 December 2015
                January 2016
                : 8
                : 1
                : 16
                Departments of Food, Nutrition and Health, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T-1Z4, Canada; ningjian.liang@ 123456alumni.ubc.ca
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: david.kitts@ 123456ubc.ca ; Tel.: +1-604-822-5560
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 08 October 2015
                : 09 December 2015

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                chlorogenic acid isomers,coffee,antioxidant activity,oxidative stress,anti-inflammation,inflammatory stress


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