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      Study Addiction: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Study Examining Temporal Stability and Predictors of Its Changes

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          “Study addiction” has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far.

          Methods

          The BStAS and the Ten Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 1,133 Norwegians and 794 Polish, who were still students completed the survey.

          Results

          The test–retest reliability coefficients for the BStAS revealed that the scores were relatively stable over time. In Norway, scores on the BStAS were higher in Wave 2 than in Wave 1, whereas in Poland, the reverse pattern was observed. Learning time outside classes at Wave 1 was positively related to escalation of study addiction symptoms over time in both samples. Being female and scoring higher on neuroticism was related to an increase in study addiction in the Norwegian sample only.

          Conclusions

          Study addiction appears to be temporally stable, and the amount of learning time spent outside classes predicts changes in study addiction 1 year later.

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          Most cited references 44

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          The reliability of a two-item scale: Pearson, Cronbach, or Spearman-Brown?

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            Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research

            Background Behavioral addiction research has been particularly flourishing over the last two decades. However, recent publications have suggested that nearly all daily life activities might lead to a genuine addiction. Methods and aim In this article, we discuss how the use of atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches may result in the identification of an unlimited list of “new” behavioral addictions. Results Both methodological and theoretical shortcomings of these studies were discussed. Conclusions We suggested that studies overpathologizing daily life activities are likely to prompt a dismissive appraisal of behavioral addiction research. Consequently, we proposed several roadmaps for future research in the field, centrally highlighting the need for longer tenable behavioral addiction research that shifts from a mere criteria-based approach toward an approach focusing on the psychological processes involved.
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              Addiction is a brain disease, and it matters.

               Alan Leshner (1997)
              Scientific advances over the past 20 years have shown that drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease that results from the prolonged effects of drugs on the brain. As with many other brain diseases, addiction has embedded behavioral and social-context aspects that are important parts of the disorder itself. Therefore, the most effective treatment approaches will include biological, behavioral, and social-context components. Recognizing addiction as a chronic, relapsing brain disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use can impact society's overall health and social policy strategies and help diminish the health and social costs associated with drug abuse and addiction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                09 May 2016
                June 2016
                : 5
                : 2
                : 357-362
                Affiliations
                [1 ] University of Gdansk , Gdansk, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen , Bergen, Norway
                [3 ] The Bergen Clinics Foundation , Bergen, Norway
                [4 ] Nottigham Trent University , Nottingham, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Paweł Andrzej Atroszko; Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Bazynskiego 4, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland; Phone: +48 58 523 43 22; E-mail: p.atroszko@ 123456ug.edu.pl
                Article
                10.1556/2006.5.2016.024
                5387788
                27156381
                © 2016 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 6
                Funding
                Funding sources: This research was partially funded by “Yggdrasil – young guest and doctoral researchers’ annual scholarships for investigation and learning” (219026/F11) from Research Council of Norway to Dr. Pallesen and Dr. Atroszko. On the basis of decision number DEC-2013/08/T/HS6/00403, the author (PAA) received funds from National Science Centre Poland within doctoral scholarship for preparing PhD dissertation.
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