Objective To describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among college students, so as to provide a reference for improving college students’ mental and physical health.
Methods From April to May 2019, 1 110 college students were randomly sampled in Hefei City, Anhui Province and Shangrao City, Jiangxi Province, and a follow-up survey was conducted from September to October 2019. The depression subscale of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was used to investigate depressive symptoms in college students. The Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQFFQ) was used to investigate the eating behaviors of college students. Diet patterns were analyzed by principal component analysis and exploratory factor analysis, and the scores were classified T1, T2 and T3. Multivariate Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of baseline dietary patterns and depressive symptoms at baseline and follow-up.
Results The detection rates of mild, moderate and above depressive symptoms among baseline college students were 7.03% and 14.23%, respectively. The results of principal component analysis and exploratory factor analysis showed that the dietary patterns of college students were divided into four patterns: sugary drinks, meat, fast food and healthy food. At baseline and follow-up surveys, the detection rate of depressive symptoms in sugary drinks, meat and fast food was the highest (χ 2=21.51, 32.25, 22.21; 23.54, 13.91, 19.98, P<0.05). The results of multivariate Logistic regression model showed that the meat and fast food T3 showed positive association with baseline and moderate follow-up, and the fast food T3 showed positive association with mild depressive symptoms at follow-up ( P<0.05).
Conclusion Meat and fast food diet patterns can increase the risk of depressive symptoms, suggesting that improving their eating patterns has a positive effect on promoting the mental health of college students.
【摘要】 目的 探讨大学生饮食模式和抑郁症状的横断面及纵向关联, 为促进大学生身心健康提供依据。 方法 于2019 年4一5月采用整群随机抽样方法, 在安黴省合肥市和江西省上饶市 2所高校选取大学生进行基线调查, 并于2019年9一10月进行随访调查, 共调查1 110名大学生。使用抑郁-焦虑-压力自评量表(DASS-21)中抑郁分量表调查大学生的抑郁 症状, 使用半定量食物频率问卷 (SQFFQ)调查大学生饮食行为。运用主成分分析和探索性因子分析方法分析饮食模式, 使 用三分位数法将各饮食模式因子得分划为T1、T2和T3组, 并采用多因素Logistic回归模型分析基线饮食模式与基线和随 访调查抑郁症状的关联。 结果 基线大学生轻度、中度及以上抑郁症状检出率分别为7.03%和14.23%。主成分分析和探 索性因子分析结果显示大学生饮食模式可分为含糖饮料、肉类、快餐和健康食物4种。在基线和随访调查中, 含糖饮料、肉 类和快餐3种饮食模式T3组中度及以上抑郁症状检出率最高 (χ 2值分别为21.51, 32.25, 22.21; 23.54, 13.91, 19.98, P值均<0.05)。调整协变量后, 多因素Logistic回归模型结果显示, 大学生肉类和快餐饮食模式T3组与基线、随访中度及以上抑 郁症状均呈正相关;大学生快餐饮食模式T3组与随访轻度抑郁症状呈正相关 ( P值均<0.05)。 结论 大学生肉类和快餐 饮食模式可增加抑郁症状的发生风险, 改善大学生饮食模式对促进大学生心理健康有积极作用。