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      Medical Education for “Generation Z”: Everything online?! – An analysis of Internet-based media use by teachers in medicine Translated title: Lehre für „Generation Z“ – alles online?! – Eine Analyse zur Nutzung von Onlinemedien durch Lehrende im Humanmedizinstudium

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Aim: The aims of this study were to gain an overview of the web-based media used during the clinical phase of medical study at German medical schools and to identify the resources needed for web-based media use. Also examined were the influences on web-based media use, for instance, the assessment of their suitability for use in teaching.

          Method: An online survey of 264 teacher coordinators in internal medicine, surgery, anesthesiology, gynecology, pediatrics and psychiatry was conducted in March and April, 2016. This survey was carried out in the German-speaking countries using a 181-item questionnaire developed by us. Analysis took place in the form of descriptive and exploratory data analysis.

          Results: The response rate was 34.8% with 92 responses. Individual web-based media were actively used in the classroom by a maximum of 28% of participants. Reasons cited against using web-based media in teaching included the amount of time required and lack of support staff. The assessment of suitability revealed that interactive patient cases, podcasts and subject-specific apps for teaching medicine were predominantly viewed as constructive teaching tools. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter were considered unsuitable. When using web-based media and assessing their suitability for teaching, no correlations with the personal profiles of the teachers were found in the exploratory analysis, except regarding the use of different sources of information.

          Conclusion: Despite the Internet’s rapid development in the past 15 years, web-based media continue to play only a minor role in teaching medicine. Above all, teacher motivation and sufficient staff resources are necessary for more effective use of Internet-based media in the future.

          Zusammenfassung

          Zielsetzung: Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es einen Überblick über den Einsatz von Onlinemedien im klinischen Studienabschnitt der humanmedizinischen Lehre deutschsprachiger medizinischer Fakultäten zu bekommen, dafür notwendige Ressourcen zu identifizieren, sowie Einflüsse auf die Nutzung von Onlinemedien, wie die Einschätzung der Lehreignung, zu erfassen.

          Methodik: Von März bis April 2016 wurde hierfür eine Onlinebefragung unter 264 Lehrverantwortlichen der Fachrichtungen Innere Medizin, Chirurgie, Anästhesiologie, Gynäkologie, Pädiatrie und Psychiatrie im deutschsprachigen Raum durchgeführt. Die Befragung erfolgte mit Hilfe eines selbst erstellten Fragebogens, der 181 Items erfasste. Die Auswertung erfolgte über eine deskriptive und explorative Statistik.

          Ergebnisse: Die Rücklaufquote lag mit 92 Rückmeldungen bei 34,8%. Die einzelnen Onlinemedien wurden von maximal 28% der Teilnehmenden aktiv im Unterricht eingesetzt. Als Gründe gegen eine Verwendung von Onlinemedien im Unterricht wurden die benötigte Arbeitszeit und mangelnde personelle Unterstützung genannt. Die Bewertung der Lehreignung ergab, dass vor allem interaktive Onlinefallbearbeitungen, Podcasts und fachspezifische Apps für die Lehre in der Humanmedizin als geeignet angesehen wurden. Soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter wurden als ungeeignet eingeschätzt. Bei der Verwendung von Onlinemedien und der Bewertung der Lehreignung zeigten sich in der explorativen Statistik, bis auf die Nutzung verschiedener Informationsquellen, keine Zusammenhänge zu persönlichen Merkmalen der Lehrenden.

          Schlussfolgerung: Trotz der rasanten Entwicklung des Internets in den letzten 15 Jahren spielen Onlinemedien für das Lehrgeschehen in der Humanmedizin weiterhin nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Um Onlinemedien künftig effektiver zu nutzen werden vor allem eine hohe Motivation der Lehrenden und ausreichende personelle Ressourcen benötigt.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education

          Background We have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of Web-based 'collaborationware' in recent years. These Web 2.0 applications, particularly wikis, blogs and podcasts, have been increasingly adopted by many online health-related professional and educational services. Because of their ease of use and rapidity of deployment, they offer the opportunity for powerful information sharing and ease of collaboration. Wikis are Web sites that can be edited by anyone who has access to them. The word 'blog' is a contraction of 'Web Log' – an online Web journal that can offer a resource rich multimedia environment. Podcasts are repositories of audio and video materials that can be "pushed" to subscribers, even without user intervention. These audio and video files can be downloaded to portable media players that can be taken anywhere, providing the potential for "anytime, anywhere" learning experiences (mobile learning). Discussion Wikis, blogs and podcasts are all relatively easy to use, which partly accounts for their proliferation. The fact that there are many free and Open Source versions of these tools may also be responsible for their explosive growth. Thus it would be relatively easy to implement any or all within a Health Professions' Educational Environment. Paradoxically, some of their disadvantages also relate to their openness and ease of use. With virtually anybody able to alter, edit or otherwise contribute to the collaborative Web pages, it can be problematic to gauge the reliability and accuracy of such resources. While arguably, the very process of collaboration leads to a Darwinian type 'survival of the fittest' content within a Web page, the veracity of these resources can be assured through careful monitoring, moderation, and operation of the collaborationware in a closed and secure digital environment. Empirical research is still needed to build our pedagogic evidence base about the different aspects of these tools in the context of medical/health education. Summary and conclusion If effectively deployed, wikis, blogs and podcasts could offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepen levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within digital learning environments. Therefore, research should be conducted to determine the best ways to integrate these tools into existing e-Learning programmes for students, health professionals and patients, taking into account the different, but also overlapping, needs of these three audience classes and the opportunities of virtual collaboration between them. Of particular importance is research into novel integrative applications, to serve as the "glue" to bind the different forms of Web-based collaborationware synergistically in order to provide a coherent wholesome learning experience.
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            Social media use in medical education: a systematic review.

            The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on social media use in medical education to answer two questions: (1) How have interventions using social media tools affected outcomes of satisfaction, knowledge, attitudes, and skills for physicians and physicians-in-training? and (2) What challenges and opportunities specific to social media have educators encountered in implementing these interventions? The authors searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (from the start of each through September 12, 2011) using keywords related to social media and medical education. Two authors independently reviewed the search results to select peer-reviewed, English-language articles discussing social media use in educational interventions at any level of physician training. They assessed study quality using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions using social media tools were associated with improved knowledge (e.g., exam scores), attitudes (e.g., empathy), and skills (e.g., reflective writing). The most commonly reported opportunities related to incorporating social media tools were promoting learner engagement (71% of studies), feedback (57%), and collaboration and professional development (both 36%). The most commonly cited challenges were technical issues (43%), variable learner participation (43%), and privacy/security concerns (29%). Studies were generally of low to moderate quality; there was only one randomized controlled trial. Social media use in medical education is an emerging field of scholarship that merits further investigation. Educators face challenges in adapting new technologies, but they also have opportunities for innovation.
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              What is Web 2.0: Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS Journal for Medical Education
                German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
                2366-5017
                15 May 2018
                2018
                : 35
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Leipzig, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Leipzig, Germany
                [2 ]University of Leipzig, Vice-Rectorate for Education and International Affairs, Project: Teaching practice in transfer, Leipzig, Germany
                [3 ]District of Mittweida Hospital gGmbH, Department for Anesthesiology and Interdisciplinary Intensive Care Medicine, Mittweida, Germany
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Gunther Hempel, University of Leipzig, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Liebigstr. 20, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany, E-mail: gunther.hempel@ 123456medizin.uni-leipzig.de
                Article
                zma001168 Doc21 urn:nbn:de:0183-zma0011687
                10.3205/zma001168
                6022581
                Copyright © 2018 Vogelsang et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. See license information at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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