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      Efficacy of a novel topical combination of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel against ear mite ( Otodectes cynotis) infestations in cats Translated title: Efficacité d’une nouvelle association topique d’esafoxolaner, d’éprinomectine et de praziquantel contre les infestations par l’acarien agent de la gale des oreilles Otodectes cynotis chez les chats

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          Abstract

          Esafoxolaner, a purified enantiomer of afoxolaner with insecticidal and acaricidal properties, is combined with eprinomectin and praziquantel, nematodicidal and cestodicidal compounds, in NexGard ® Combo, a novel topical endectoparasiticide formulation for cats. The efficacy of this formulation was assessed against Otodectes cynotis in two laboratory studies conducted in South Africa and in the USA with local isolates, and in one field trial conducted in Europe. In each study, cats were randomly allocated to a placebo-treated control group and a novel formulation-treated group. In the laboratory studies, cats were treated at the minimum recommended dose; in the field trial, cats were treated at label dose. All included cats were diagnosed positive for O. cynotis prior to treatment by otoscopy. The main variable of efficacy was a comparison of the number of live O. cynotis collected in both ear canals of all cats in the treated and control groups, one month after treatment. Efficacy of the novel topical formulation exceeded 97% in the three studies. These studies demonstrated the high effectiveness of NexGard ® Combo in cats for the treatment of O. cynotis infestations. No health abnormalities were attributed to the treatment in any of the studies.

          Translated abstract

          L’esafoxolaner, un énantiomère purifié d’afoxolaner aux propriétés insecticides et acaricides, est associé à l’éprinomectine et au praziquantel, composés nématodicides et cestodicides, dans NexGard ® Combo, une nouvelle formulation endectoparasiticide topique pour chats. L’efficacité de cette formulation a été évaluée contre Otodectes cynotis dans deux études de laboratoire menées en Afrique du Sud et aux États-Unis avec des isolats locaux, et dans un essai sur le terrain mené en Europe. Dans chaque étude, les chats ont été répartis au hasard entre un groupe témoin traité par placebo et un groupe traité par la nouvelle formulation. Dans les études de laboratoire, les chats ont été traités à la dose minimale recommandée, et dans l’essai sur le terrain, les chats ont été traités à la dose indiquée sur l’étiquette. Tous les chats inclus ont été diagnostiqués positifs pour O. cynotis avant le traitement par otoscopie. La principale variable d’efficacité était une comparaison du nombre d’ O. cynotis vivants, collectés dans les deux conduits auditifs de tous les chats, dans le groupe traité et dans le groupe témoin, un mois après le traitement. L’efficacité de la nouvelle formulation topique a dépassé 97 % dans les trois études. Ces études ont démontré la grande efficacité de NexGard ® Combo chez les chats pour le traitement des infestations par O. cynotis. Aucune anomalie de santé n’a été attribuée au traitement dans aucune des études.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

          Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.
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            Insecticide and acaricide molecules and/or combinations to prevent pet infestation by ectoparasites.

            External antiparasitic drugs used in cats and dogs have evolved in terms of active ingredients but also regarding formulations. Old chemical groups have been supplanted by phenylpyrazoles, neonicotinoids, oxadiazines, spinosyns or others which are entering the veterinary market. In addition to insecticides-acaricides, insect and mite growth inhibitors (IGRs) have emerged. These IGRs are used in animals or in the environment, either alone or in combination with insecticides-acaricides. The notion of antiparasitic treatment has evolved to the concept of prevention of ectoparasite infestation but also of transmitted diseases through the introduction of formulations providing long-lasting activity. At the same time, ease-of-use has been improved with the development of spot-on formulations. Progress has also been achieved through the development of antiparasitic drugs providing control of both external and internal parasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

              Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2021
                02 April 2021
                : 28
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2021/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health 29 Avenue Tony Garnier 69007 Lyon France
                [2 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center Walchenseestr. 8–12 83101 Rohrdorf Germany
                [3 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health, Missouri Research Center 6498 Jade Rd. Fulton 65251 MO USA
                [4 ] Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Japan Co Ltd ThinkPark Tower, 2-1-1 Osaki Shinagawa-ku 141-6017 Tokyo Japan
                [5 ] Clinvet International (Pty) Ltd. P.O. Box 11186 Universitas 9321 Bloemfontein Republic of South Africa
                [6 ] Kapriol Bt. Vak Bottyán St. 1 8330 Sümeg Hungary
                [7 ] Veterinary Research Institute, ELGO-DIMITRA Campus Thermi 57001 Thessaloniki Greece
                [8 ] Cheri-Hill Kennel & Supply Inc. 17190 Polk Rd. Stanwood 49346 MI USA
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite200025 10.1051/parasite/2021022
                10.1051/parasite/2021022
                8019571
                © E. Tielemans et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2021

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Article
                Special Issue – NexGard ® Combo (esafoxolaner, eprinomectin, praziquantel): A new endectocide spot-on formulation for cats. Invited Editor: Frédéric Beugnet

                cat, ear mite, otodectes cynotis, esafoxolaner, efficacy

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