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      Understanding nonlinear vibration behaviours in high-power ultrasonic surgical devices

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          Ultrasonic surgical devices are increasingly used in oral, craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery to cut mineralized tissue, offering the surgeon high accuracy with minimal risk to nerve and vessel tissue. Power ultrasonic devices operate in resonance, requiring their length to be a half-wavelength or multiple-half-wavelength. For bone surgery, devices based on a half-wavelength have seen considerable success, but longer multiple-half-wavelength endoscopic devices have recently been proposed to widen the range of surgeries. To provide context for these developments, some examples of surgical procedures and the associated designs of ultrasonic cutting tips are presented. However, multiple-half-wavelength components, typical of endoscopic devices, have greater potential to exhibit nonlinear dynamic behaviours that have a highly detrimental effect on device performance. Through experimental characterization of the dynamic behaviour of endoscopic devices, it is demonstrated how geometrical features influence nonlinear dynamic responses. Period doubling, a known route to chaotic behaviour, is shown to be significantly influenced by the cutting tip shape, whereas the cutting tip has only a limited effect on Duffing-like responses, particularly the shape of the hysteresis curve, which is important for device stability. These findings underpin design, aiming to pave the way for a new generation of ultrasonic endoscopic surgical devices.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Cytokines and growth factors involved in the osseointegration of oral titanium implants positioned using piezoelectric bone surgery versus a drill technique: a pilot study in minipigs.

          Most dental implants are positioned using a drilling surgery technique. However, dentistry recently experienced the implementation of piezoelectric surgery. This technique was introduced to overcome some of the limitations involving rotating instruments in bone surgery. This study used biomolecular and histologic analyses to compare the osseointegration of porous implants positioned using traditional drills versus the piezoelectric bone surgery technique. Porous titanium implants were inserted into minipig tibias. Histomorphology and levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta and -10 were evaluated in the peri-implant osseous samples. Histomorphological analyses demonstrated that more inflammatory cells were present in samples from drilled sites. Also, neo-osteogenesis was consistently more active in bone samples from the implant sites that were prepared using piezoelectric bone surgery. Moreover, bone around the implants treated with the piezoelectric bone surgery technique showed an earlier increase in BMP-4 and TGF-beta2 proteins as well as a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines. Piezoelectric bone surgery appears to be more efficient in the first phases of bone healing; it induced an earlier increase in BMPs, controlled the inflammatory process better, and stimulated bone remodeling as early as 56 days post-treatment.
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            The piezoelectric bony window osteotomy and sinus membrane elevation: introduction of a new technique for simplification of the sinus augmentation procedure.

            All of the surgical techniques to elevate the maxillary sinus present the possibility of perforating the schneiderian membrane. This complication can occur during the osteotomy, which is performed with burs, or during the elevation of the membrane using manual elevators. The purpose of this article is to present a new surgical technique that radically simplifies maxillary sinus surgery, thus avoiding perforating the membrane. The piezoelectric bony window osteotomy easily cuts mineralized tissue without damaging the soft tissue, and the piezoelectric sinus membrane elevation separates the schneiderian membrane without causing perforations. The elevation of the membrane from the sinus floor is performed using both piezoelectric elevators and the force of a physiologic solution subjected to piezoelectric cavitation. Twenty-one piezoelectric bony window osteotomy and piezoelectric sinus membrane elevations were performed on 15 patients using the appropriate surgical device (Mectron Piezosurgery System). Only one perforation occurred during the osteotomy at the site of an underwood septa, resulting in a 95% success rate. The average length of the window was 14 mm; its height was 6 mm, and its thickness was 1.4 mm. The average time necessary for the piezoelectric bony window osteotomy was approximately 3 minutes, while the piezoelectric sinus membrane elevation required approximately 5 minutes.
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              Piezoelectric surgery: twenty years of use.

              The use of ultrasonic vibrations for the cutting of bone was first introduced two decades ago. Piezoelectric surgery is a minimally invasive technique that lessens the risk of damage to surrounding soft tissues and important structures such as nerves, vessels, and mucosa. It also reduces damage to osteocytes and permits good survival of bony cells during harvesting of bone. Piezoelectric surgery was first used by oral and maxillofacial surgeons for osteotomies, but recently some specific applications in neurosurgery and orthopaedics have been proposed. We review the different applications of piezoelectric surgery.

                Author and article information

                Proc Math Phys Eng Sci
                Proc. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci
                Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences / The Royal Society
                The Royal Society Publishing
                8 April 2015
                8 April 2015
                : 471
                : 2176
                [1 ]School of Engineering, University of Glasgow , Glasgow, UK
                [2 ]Pusonics SL, Arganda del Rey, Spain
                [3 ]Mectron S.p.A , Carasco, GE, Italy
                Author notes

                © 2015 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                April 8, 2015


                nonlinear behaviour, experimental modal analysis, ultrasonic surgery, power ultrasonics


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